Initially it is metabolized by alcohol dehydrogenase to glycolaldehyde
, which is then oxidized to glycolic acid (Maier, 1983).
 The system was previously studied by ALMA in 2012 and found to contain molecules of the simple sugar glycolaldehyde
, another ingredient for life.
The major components identified in biooil with their typical shifts are as follows: alkanes (0.5-1.6 ppm), aromatics (6.4-7.6 ppm), aldehydes (9.5-10.5 ppm), formic acid (8.10 ppm), acetaldehyde (9.58 and 2.08 ppm), levoglucosan (3.27, 3.84-3.85, 4.31-4.33, and 5.13 ppm), glycolaldehyde
(9.55 ppm), hydroxyacetone (4.01 ppm), and acetic acid (1.88 ppm).
When ingested, both methanol and ethylene glycol undergo an initial biochemical reaction catalyzed by alcohol dehydrogenase (the same enzyme metabolizing ethanol) converting the parent alcohol into formaldehyde and glycolaldehyde
When heat is introduced into the solution, ethylene glycol is oxidized to glycolaldehyde
as given by (1).
The latter may react with singlet oxygen to produce dioxetane 91 as a precursor of oxalic acid (HOOC-COOH), glycolaldehyde
92, and glyoxal 93, all of which are known products of glycoxidation .
The aptly named Comet Lovejoy contains ethanol and the simple sugar glycolaldehyde
, researchers report October 23 in Science Advances.
The team looking at this one found 21 different organic molecules in gas from the comet, including ethyl alcohol and glycolaldehyde
, on Earth a type of sugar.
(d) [C.sub.5][H.sub.10][O.sub.3] = dihydroxy isoprene epoxides, [C.sub.5][H.sub.8][O.sub.3] = isoprene hydroxyperoxyaldehydes, ETHLN = ethanal nitrate, GLYC = glycolaldehyde
, HAC = hydroxyacetone, HCN = hydrogen cyanide, IEPOX = isoprene epoxides, ISOPN = isoprene hydroxynitrates, ISOPOOH = isoprene hydroxyperoxides, PAA = peroxyacetic acid, PROPNN = propanone nitrate.
In addition to the three inhibitor categories, glycolaldehyde
was reported as another inhibitory compound in lignocellulosic hydrolysates .
It is demonstrated that, besides certain ROS, myeloperoxidase generates such RCS as glycolaldehyde
, 2-hydroxypropanal, acetone, and acrolein [52, 73].
The study showed that carnosine inhibits the modification of LDL by glycolaldehyde
, a reactive aldehyde, when introduced at equal concentrations to the modifying agent.