The stress hormone cortisol has been shown to increased glucose production in fish, by the process of gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis
. Increase in cortisol level was also reported by Borges et al.
These are indicatives that the hydrogel increased glycogenolysis
Glucagon, in the short-term, induces glycogenolysis
, gluconeogenesis and lipolysis and causes a rapid increase in plasma glucose within a few minutes after administration.
Association of glycogenolysis
with cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum: II.
In contrast, in hyperthyroidism patients, thyroid hormone increases intestinal glucose absorption through rapid stomach emptying and increased intestinal hexokinase and phosphokinase activity, directly influencing islet [sz]-cells and increasing hepatic gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis
.[sup] Furthermore, a reduction in peripheral glucose uptake among other effects leads to elevated blood glucose and insulin resistance,[sup] resulting in diabetes.
Glucose levels are maintained by glycogenolysis
, but glycogen stores are rarely sufficient for more than 72 hours.
First, AMPK phosphorylates and activates phosphory-lase kinase, which then phosphorylates and activates glycogen phosphorylase, an enzyme controlling glycogenolysis
and catalyzing the production of substrate for glycolysis .
Possibly this increase in plasma glucose levels due to catecholamine mediated glycogenolysis
may represent an adaptive response to stress caused by transport.
In response to stress, increased glycogenolysis
increases blood glucose concentrations; however, due to CCB blockade of calcium-mediated insulin release by pancreatic [beta] cells, the additional glucose cannot be used.
FOXO1 regulates adipogenesis, gluconeogenesis, and glycogenolysis
. Mechanistically, the unphosphorylated FOXO1 binds to the insulin response sequence present in the promoter region of G6P (glucose-6 phosphatase) in the nucleus .
This restoration of body weight might be due to reversal of gluconeogenesis, glycogenolysis
, and proteolysis .
Typical metabolic derangement in diabetes involves decreased utilization of carbohydrates, excessive glycogenolysis
, and increased gluconeogenesis from amino acids and fatty acids [3, 4].