She was diagnosed with esophageal glycogenic acanthosis (Figures 1(a)-1(c)) found on upper endoscopy performed at age twenty-two months for symptoms of reflux and feeding difficulties.
Caption: Figure 1: (a) Esophageal squamous mucosa with upper keratinocytes showing "cleared out" cytoplasms, characteristic for glycogenic acanthosis, and a rare eosinophil, consistent with minimal reflux (H&E 20x).
Background/Aims: To evaluate the incidence of insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in patients with glycogenic acanthosis (GA).
Keywords: Esophagus, glycogenic acanthosis, metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance
Glycogenic acanthosis (GA) is a nodular or plaque-like elevation of the esophageal squamous epithelium, with an unknown origin (1).
Glycogenic acanthosis was diagnosed on histopathological examination of the specimen or the presence of typical endoscopic view (one or more, round/oval, whitish elevated lesions of the esophagus covered with normal mucosa and frequently <5 mm in diameter).
In epithelial lesions, the frequency of occurrence was in the following order: glycogenic acanthosis
, heterotopic gastric mucosa, squamous papilloma, hyperplastic polyp, ectopic sebaceous gland, and xanthoma.
Glycogenic acanthosis is a common degenerative condition characterized by accumulation of cytoplasmic glycogen in the squamous epithelium of the esophagus.
(1,8,9) SSC can usually be differentiated from Candida esophagitis and glycogenic acanthosis, in which the plaques and nodules have discrete borders and are separated by normal intervening mucosa.
Other signs and symptoms of CD can include an enlarged head, LDD and glycogenic acanthosis
of the esophagous.
According to Belafsky in this month's Esophagology Clinic, which of the following statements regarding glycogenic acanthosis
Two larger pieces consisted of clearly nondysplastic squamous epithelium with glycogenic acanthosis
. The smallest piece initially appeared to represent squamous dysplasia (Figure 1, A).