When the net flow [F.sub.R2]-[F.sub.2R] is positive, glycogenesis
(and other metabolism) predominates, and when negative, glycogenolysis predominates.
Antihyperglycemic and glycogenesis
effects of different fractions of Brassica oleracea in alloxan induced diabetic rats.International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research, 2: 1436-1442.
The investigation addressed the regulation of hormonal control and the enzymatic (allosteric) controls of glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, glycogenesis
, glycogenolysis, lipogenesis, and lipolysis.
Some of the liver's many roles include: phagocytosis via Kupffer cells (macrophages); detoxifying drugs and poisons and metabolizing alcohol; producing bile and excreting it; breaking down bilirubin so it can be excreted; synthesizing and storing proteins (albumin and fibrinogen); synthesizing clotting factors; changing ammonia to urea; assisting in the metabolism of fats, carbohydrates, and proteins; and glycogenesis
(converting glucose to glycogen) and glycogenolysis (breaking down glycogen to glucose).
(14) Interruption of work: Glycogenesis
(sugar-metabolism) in the liver was discovered by Bernard, who measured in duplo, with many hours in between, because he was 'presse par le temps', two very different concentrations of suga in the liver.
The liver, a central organ of intermediary energy metabolism, plays a major role in processes such as gluconeogenesis, glycogenesis
, glycogenolysis, and lipid metabolism.
Altogether, these actions of insulin promote glucose utilization from the blood and energy storage through increased glycogenesis
, synthesis of fatty acids, and fat deposition.
Kim and colleagues  demonstrated that different anabolic processes, such as lipogenesis, glycogenesis
, and protein synthesis increase during senescence in primary cell cultures.
It needs further study whether glucose and insulin promote glycogenesis
T2DM animals present several conditions that favor glycogenesis
such as (1) elevated levels of insulin, which stimulate glycogen synthesis through inactivation of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) that is known to maintain GYS1 in an activated form; (2) hyperglycaemia, which increases the blood-to-testicles glucose availability, exerting an allosteric activation on GYS1 via glucose-6-phosphate (accelerating glycogen synthesis) [55, 56]; (3) increased testicular levels of UDP-glucose, an active intermediate in the synthesis of glycogen .
In diabetic rats treated with N-Trisaccharide, the liver glycogen was brought back to near normal level and this could be due to increased secretion of insulin that enhances glycogenesis
This increase may occur through the activation of glycogenesis
and/or inhibition of processes such as glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis, all of which are regulated by insulin .