Membranes were blocked in 5% nonfat dairy milk in TTBS (10 mM Tris, 100 mM NaCl, and 0.1% Tween-20, pH 7.5) for 1 hour and incubated overnight at 4[degrees]C with primary antibodies (Cell Signaling: Hsp70 1 : 4000, glycogen synthase 1
:1000; Abcam: glycogen phosphorylase 1:2000, SERCA2 1 : 1000; Santa Cruz: glucose-6-phosphotase 1 : 200) diluted in TTBS with 2% nonfat dairy milk.
In EAT, there were increases in the insulin receptor ( IR) and IR substrate 2 ( IRS2) mRNA, but CE-induced increases in mRNA expression of IRS1, phosphoinositide-3-kinase, AKT1, glucose transporters 1 and 4, and glycogen synthase 1
expression and decreased trends in mRNA expression of glycogen synthase kinase 3beta were not statistically significant.
cinnamon extract; DMEM, Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium; GLUT, glucose transporter; GSK3B, glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta; GYS1, glycogen synthase 1
; IGF, insulin-like growth factor; IGFR, insulin-like growth factor receptor; INS, insulin; INSR, insulin receptor; IRS, insulin receptor substrate; LEP, leptin; LEPR, leptin receptor; PIK3CB, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, catalytic, beta; PIK3R1, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, regulatory subunit 1; RPL32, ribosomal protein L32; SHC1, Src homology 2 domain-containing transforming protein 1; SOS1, Son of sevenless 1; TTP, tristetraprolin; ZFP36, zinc finger protein 36.