glycogen


Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia.

glycogen

 [gli´ko-jen]
a polysaccharide that is the chief carbohydrate storage material in animals, being converted to glucose by depolymerization; it is formed by and largely stored in the liver, and to a lesser extent in muscles, and is liberated as needed.
glycogen disease glycogen storage disease.
glycogen storage disease any of a group of genetically determined disorders of glycogen metabolism, marked by abnormal storage of glycogen in the body tissues. Type I is called gierke's disease; type II is called pompe's disease; type III is called forbes' disease; type IV is called amylopectinosis; type V is called mcardle disease; and type VI is called hers' disease. In type VII, a deficiency in phosphofructokinase affects muscle and erythrocytes, with temporary weakness and cramping of skeletal muscle after exercise. In type VIII, the enzyme deficiency is unknown, but the liver and brain are affected, with hepatomegaly, truncal ataxia, and nystagmus; the neurologic deterioration progresses to hypertonia, spasticity, and death. In type IX, a deficiency in liver phosphorylase kinase results in marked hepatomegaly, which may disappear in early adulthood. In type X, a lack of activity of cyclic AMP–dependent kinase affects the liver and muscle, with mild clinical symptoms. Called also glycogen disease and glycogenosis.

gly·co·gen

(glī'kō-jen),
A glucosan of high molecular weight, resembling amylopectin in structure [with α(1,4) linkages] but with more highly branched α(1,6) linkages, as well as a small number of α(1,3) linkages; found in most tissues of the body, especially those of the liver and muscle; as the principal carbohydrate reserve, it is readily converted into glucose.

glycogen

(glī′kə-jən)
n.
A polysaccharide, (C6H10O5)n, that is the main form of carbohydrate storage in animals and is found primarily in the liver and muscle tissue. It is readily converted to glucose as needed by the body to satisfy its energy needs. Also called animal starch.

gly′co·gen′ic (-jĕn′ĭk) adj.

glycogen

Animal starch A polysaccharide of glucose-produced primarily in the liver and skeletal muscle, which is analogous to plant starch, but contains more highly branched chains of glucose subunits

gly·co·gen

(glī'kō-jen)
A glucosan of high molecular weight, resembling amylopectin in structure [with α(1,4) linkages] but with even more highly branched α(1,6) linkages, as well as a small number of α(1,3) linkages, found in most of the tissues of the body, especially those of the liver and muscle; as the principal carbohydrate reserve, it is readily converted into glucose.
Synonym(s): animal starch.

glycogen

A polysaccharide formed from many molecules of the monosaccharide glucose and found in the liver and in the muscles. It is the primary energy store of the body as it breaks down readily to release molecules of glucose. Glycogen has been called ‘animal starch’.
Glycogenclick for a larger image
Fig. 176 Glycogen . Formation and breakdown of glycogen in the liver.

glycogen

the principal carbohydrate storage molecule of animals, being produced from glucose in the mammalian liver (see PHOSPHATASE and muscles when blood sugar levels are too high, a process called glycogenesis which is under the influence of INSULIN. Glycogen in the liver can be broken down to glucose when blood sugar levels are low, a process called glycogenosis which is under the influence of GLUCAGON. See Fig. 176 . Glycogen in the muscle, however, is broken down to LACTIC ACID (not glucose) in GLYCOLYSIS.

Glycogen

A macromolecule composed mainly of glucose that serves as the storage form of glucose that is not immediately needed by the body.

gly·co·gen

(glī'kō-jen)
A glucosan of high molecular weight, found in most of the tissues of the body, especially those of the liver and muscle; as principal carbohydrate reserve, readily converted into glucose.
Synonym(s): animal starch.
References in periodicals archive ?
The results of IOF of CrPyr on pyruvate, glycogen, glucose, and lactic acid concentrations in the thigh muscle are presented in Table 3 and 4, respectively.
The results of this study also indicated that the glycogen content of hemolymph showed some fluctuations between the control and some GA3-treated groups (Fig.
Cardiac rhabdomyoma must be differentiated from glycogen storage disease, which is characterized by accumulation of glycogen in the heart, skeletal muscle, liver, kidneys, or muscle layer of the esophagus (WALVOORT, 1983), in this case we did not observe lesions in other organs.
It is very much necessary that adequate amount of carbohydrate in general and glycogen in particular must be present in the glandular secretions.
The mean power output during the continuous (~70% V[O.sub.2max]) and supramaximal bouts (125% V[O.sub.2max]) for glycogen depletion was 160 [+ or -] 50 and 288 [+ or -] 58 W, respectively.
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the term for a range of conditions caused by a build-up of fat (glycogen) in the liver.
Periodic acid-Schiff staining revealed increased overall intracellular glycogen content with the presence of glycogenated nuclei.
Sodium tungstate (NaW) is an inorganic salt that exerts potent insulin-mimetic and antidiabetic actions in animal models of diabetes by normalizing hepatic glycogen metabolism and blood glucose levels [11].
Effect of glycogen depletion, deoxycholate solubilization and cardiac ischemia: Evidence for a phorphorylase kinase membrane complex.
They recommend fuelling up on carbohydrates such as potatoes, rice, pasta and fruit on the day before a race and urge runners to take on carbohydrates during exercise to prevent a decline in liver glycogen, which helps to maintain blood sugar control and delay fatigue.
Results showed that the total carbohydrate, glycogen and soluble protein contents were higher in the white cysts than in the brown cyst, whereas the glycerol content was lower in the white cysts than in the brown cysts.