glycocalyx


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glycocalyx

 [gli″ko-kal´iks]
the glycoprotein-polysaccharide covering that surrounds many cells.

gly·co·ca·lyx

(glī'kō-kā'liks),
A PAS-positive filamentous coating on the apical surface of certain epithelial cells, composed of carbohydrate moieties of proteins that protrude from the free surface of the plasma membrane.
[glyco- + G. kalyx, husk, shell]

gly·co·ca·lyx

(glī'kō-kā'liks)
A filamentous coating on the apical surface of certain epithelial cells, composed of carbohydrate moieties of proteins that protrude from the free surface of the plasma membrane; gives positive test result to periodic acid-Schiff procedure.
[glyco- + G. kalyx, husk, shell]

glycocalyx

a mass of filaments up to 3 μm thick produced by the membrane of intestinal brush-border microvilli, consisting of acid mucopolysaccharide and GLYCOPROTEIN, and thought to be associated with the digestion of small food molecules. Other animal cells also have a glycocalyx, on their cell coat, providing a mechanism that enables cells to recognise each other, an important process in embryonic development.

mucin

Glycoprotein, rich in carbohydrates, produced by the goblet cells and the subsurface vesicles of the conjunctiva which forms the basis of the mucous layer of the precorneal film. Mucin and the secreted glycocalyx (which consists of glycoproteins) are adsorbed by the epithelium of the cornea to convert it from a hydrophobic into a wettable hydrophilic surface. A deficiency in the production of mucin leads to an abnormally short precorneal film break-up time and to desiccation of the ocular surface. In addition, the mucous layer prevents microbial invasion of the cornea. In some contact lens wearers (especially of silicone hydrogel lenses) collapsed mucin, as well as lipids and tear proteins, accumulate behind the lens and form small, discrete spheres (called mucin balls or mucin plugs). These mucin balls cause neither discomfort nor loss of vision. See precorneal film; keratoconjunctivitis sicca; break-up time test; xerophthalmia.
References in periodicals archive ?
hAELVi cells form tight junctions (TJ), microvilli (Mv) and glycocalyx (Gx) at the apical cell surface.
Table 1: Low and medium molecular weight substances in erythrocyte glycocalyx, blood plasma, and urine of rats that consumed water with carrageenan and control group Index Control 1st experimental group (1 week of carrageenan consumption), U Blood plasma [E.sub.242] v.
Neumann, "Sialic acid on the neuronal glycocalyx prevents complement C1 binding and complement receptor-3-mediated removal by microglia," The Journal of Neuroscience, vol.
Evidence reveal that amongst the few labs that do study the glycocalyx, including Bertozzi's, have found that sialic acids, a subset of sugars, acts as a signal for the innate immune system to neglect the otherwise harmful appearing tumor.
aureus adheres to fixation devices by producing a glycocalyx biofilm around prosthetic materials and forms large micro-colonies.
This layer or capsule also called glycocalyx is a thin layer of tangled polysaccharide fiber.
Therefore, the present study is an attempt to demonstrate this statement, by inhibiting protein synthesis in vivo, as well as by blocking participation of cell calcium and stretch-sensitive channels, chemical modifications of endothelial glycocalyx, and changes in perfusion directionality, in vitro experiments using isolated perfused livers obtained from either sham-operated rats or rats subjected to 70% PH.
The diversity in results showed that microbicidal effects are limited to certain types of microorganisms and the interaction with the cellular microenvironment, such as cell wall, glycocalyx, slime layer, or biofilm formation, since differences in peptidoglycan composition, variations in the peptide stem, and particular cross-linking determine nanoparticle diffusion.
VEGF-A, as one member of a VEGF family, has a negative effect on glomerular endothelial cell (GEC) glycocalyx through the early stages of DN, and this effect can be reversed by VEGF-A165b, an inhibitory isoform of VEGF-A, finally ameliorating proteinuria [55].
lugdunensis possesses several virulence factors including a thermostable DNase clumping factor, an extracellular glycocalyx, lipase, haemolysin, and a fatty acid enzyme-modifying enzyme.
have clearly stated that podocalyxin, a sialomucin that is located in the glycocalyx, is not specific for podocytes [8].