glycocalyx


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glycocalyx

 [gli″ko-kal´iks]
the glycoprotein-polysaccharide covering that surrounds many cells.

gly·co·ca·lyx

(glī'kō-kā'liks),
A PAS-positive filamentous coating on the apical surface of certain epithelial cells, composed of carbohydrate moieties of proteins that protrude from the free surface of the plasma membrane.
[glyco- + G. kalyx, husk, shell]

glycocalyx

/gly·co·cal·yx/ (gli″ko-kal´iks) the glycoprotein-polysaccharide covering that surrounds many cells.

gly·co·ca·lyx

(glī'kō-kā'liks)
A filamentous coating on the apical surface of certain epithelial cells, composed of carbohydrate moieties of proteins that protrude from the free surface of the plasma membrane; gives positive test result to periodic acid-Schiff procedure.
[glyco- + G. kalyx, husk, shell]

glycocalyx

a mass of filaments up to 3 μm thick produced by the membrane of intestinal brush-border microvilli, consisting of acid mucopolysaccharide and GLYCOPROTEIN, and thought to be associated with the digestion of small food molecules. Other animal cells also have a glycocalyx, on their cell coat, providing a mechanism that enables cells to recognise each other, an important process in embryonic development.

mucin

Glycoprotein, rich in carbohydrates, produced by the goblet cells and the subsurface vesicles of the conjunctiva which forms the basis of the mucous layer of the precorneal film. Mucin and the secreted glycocalyx (which consists of glycoproteins) are adsorbed by the epithelium of the cornea to convert it from a hydrophobic into a wettable hydrophilic surface. A deficiency in the production of mucin leads to an abnormally short precorneal film break-up time and to desiccation of the ocular surface. In addition, the mucous layer prevents microbial invasion of the cornea. In some contact lens wearers (especially of silicone hydrogel lenses) collapsed mucin, as well as lipids and tear proteins, accumulate behind the lens and form small, discrete spheres (called mucin balls or mucin plugs). These mucin balls cause neither discomfort nor loss of vision. See precorneal film; keratoconjunctivitis sicca; break-up time test; xerophthalmia.

glycocalyx

the glycoprotein-polysaccharide covering that surrounds many cells.
References in periodicals archive ?
Endothelial glycocalyx damage during endotoxemia coincides with microcirculatory dysfunction and vascular oxidative stress.
The authors concluded that in the sequence of exine development four main stages can be recognized, each with a different mechanism for wall construction: (1) formation of glycocalyx by self-assembly of micelles, (2) insertion of sporopollenin receptors under control of genome, (3) accumulation of receptor-dependant sporopollenin under control of sporopollenin receptors and (4) accumulation of receptor-independent sporopollenin by self-assembly.
Characterizing the glycocalyx of poultry spermatozoa: Identification and distribution of carbohydrate residues using flow cytometry and epifluorescence microscopy.
A low molecular weight heparin inhibits experimental metastasis in mice independently of the endothelial glycocalyx.
Albumin maintained normal microvascular permeability by binding the endothelial glycocalyx.
The glycocalyx extends out from the cell surface and is the first line of contact between the cell and other cells or, alternatively, viruses or bacteria.
Premature estrogen administration results in decreased expression of ITIH2 in the uterine endometrium in pigs, which could be related to loss of uterine glycocalyx leading to degradation of conceptuses (Ashworth et al.
Most biofilms are heterogeneous in species and morphology and are enveloped in a polysaccharide slime layer known as a glycocalyx.
Otro mecanismo a ser considerado es la adherencia selectiva de los microorganismos en los minerales, la cual resulta de varios tipos de interaccion: (a) hidrofobicidad, (b) fuerzas electrostaticas, (c) fuerzas de van der Waals (Vargas, 1996), ademas de la formacion de glycocalyx a partir de las bacterias (Rossi, 1990).
This adaptation period was may be due to replacement of glycocalyx elements which losting during trypsinization and to attached to substrate and spread out.
The glycocalyx of the bacterium Xanthomonas campestris is the source of xanthan gum: dead X.
One of the challenging aspects of pseudomonal endocarditis treatment is the requirement of higher concentration of antimicrobial agents, as penetration of the antimicrobial agent is decreased to the bacterial cell because of polyanionic glycocalyx biofilm formation of P.