betaine

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betaine

 [be´tah-ēn]
the carboxylic acid derived by oxidation of choline; it acts as a transmethylating metabolic intermediate and is used in the treatment of homocystinuria. The hydrochloride salt is used as a gastric acidifier.

be·ta·ine

(bē'tă-īn), Avoid the mispronunciation bē'tān.
1. An oxidation product of choline and a transmethylating intermediate in metabolism.
2. A class of compounds related to betaine. (1) (that is, R3N+-CHR'-COO-), for example, glycine betaine.
Synonym(s): glycine betaine

betaine

(bē′tə-ēn′, -ĭn)
n.
1. A sweet-tasting crystalline alkaloid, C5H11NO2, found in sugar beets and other plants, used to treat certain metabolic disorders, especially an enzyme defect that causes excessive levels of homocysteine in the blood and urine.
2. Any of several alkaloids with similar structures.

be·ta·ine

(bā'tă-ēn)
An oxidation product of choline and a transmethylating intermediate in metabolism.
References in periodicals archive ?
Salinity tolerance in brassica increased by exogenous application of proline and Glycine betaine. Glycine betaine content was observed to be increased under salt stress (Amandeep et al., 2014).
Foolad, "Roles of glycine betaine and proline in improving plant abiotic stress resistance," Environmental and Experimental Botany, vol.
Glycine betaine, an osmotic effector in Klebsiella pneumoniae and other members of the Enterobacteriaceae.
excised leaf water retention, proline, sugar, glycine betaine, cell membrane stability and osmotic adjustment (Table 1).
Choline monooxygenase, an unusual iron-sulfur enzyme catalyzing the first step of glycine betaine synthesis in plants: Prosthetic group characterization and cDNA cloning.
Glycine betaine contents were estimated according to the method of (Grieve and Grattan, (1983).
The osmoprotectant glycine betaine inhibits salt-induced cross-tolerance towards lethal treatment in Enterococcus faecalis.
Recently, transgenic rice with the codA gene (choline oxidase) from Arthrobacter globiformis under the control of the cauliflower mosaic 35S promoter was shown to accumulate glycine betaine and acquired resistance to salt stress (Sakamoto et al., 1996).
Change in antioxidant activity, phenolic contents, lipid peroxidation, glycine betaine and proline contents were investigated in fifteen genotypes of wheat differing in salt tolerance.
Glycine betaine or betaine is extensively originated in nature and has been in use as anticoccidial agent in broiler chickens (Boch et al., 1994).
Betaine (glycine betaine, trimethylglycine) is a naturally occurring, nontoxic amino acid derivative that is commonly found in a large number of plant and animal species (Saarinen et al., 2001).