Salinity tolerance in brassica increased by exogenous application of proline and Glycine betaine
. Glycine betaine
content was observed to be increased under salt stress (Amandeep et al., 2014).
Foolad, "Roles of glycine betaine
and proline in improving plant abiotic stress resistance," Environmental and Experimental Botany, vol.
, an osmotic effector in Klebsiella pneumoniae and other members of the Enterobacteriaceae.
excised leaf water retention, proline, sugar, glycine betaine
, cell membrane stability and osmotic adjustment (Table 1).
Choline monooxygenase, an unusual iron-sulfur enzyme catalyzing the first step of glycine betaine
synthesis in plants: Prosthetic group characterization and cDNA cloning.
contents were estimated according to the method of (Grieve and Grattan, (1983).
Osmotic control of the glycine betaine
biosynthesis and degradation in Rhizobium meliloti.
The osmoprotectant glycine betaine
inhibits salt-induced cross-tolerance towards lethal treatment in Enterococcus faecalis.
Recently, transgenic rice with the codA gene (choline oxidase) from Arthrobacter globiformis under the control of the cauliflower mosaic 35S promoter was shown to accumulate glycine betaine
and acquired resistance to salt stress (Sakamoto et al., 1996).
Change in antioxidant activity, phenolic contents, lipid peroxidation, glycine betaine
and proline contents were investigated in fifteen genotypes of wheat differing in salt tolerance.
or betaine is extensively originated in nature and has been in use as anticoccidial agent in broiler chickens (Boch et al., 1994).
Betaine (glycine betaine
, trimethylglycine) is a naturally occurring, nontoxic amino acid derivative that is commonly found in a large number of plant and animal species (Saarinen et al., 2001).