The 33 identified metabolites in Module 1 belonged to 8 classes within the lipid super class: long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs), polyunsaturated fatty acids [omega-3 and -6 (n3 and n6)] (PUFAs), medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs), branched fatty acids, monohydroxy fatty acids, lysolipids, fatty acid metabolism, and glycerolipid
Age-associated changes in central nervous system glycerolipid
composition and metabolism.
These genes are known to be associated with lipid metabolism, including triglyceride metabolic process (PCSK9), steroid biosynthesis (SQLE), glycerolipid
metabolism (MGLL), ether lipid metabolism (PLA2G7), and phosphatidylinositol signaling system (IP6K1).
Ribechini, "Combined GC/MS analytical procedure for the characterization of glycerolipid
, waxy, resinous, and proteinaceous materials in a unique paint microsample," Analytical Chemistry, vol.
The concentration of MAGs is regulated by the specific monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) and by glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT) in de novo glycerolipid
biosynthesis and diacylglycerol lipase (DAGL).
GO analysis further revealed that M1 was highly enriched with genes belonging to the glycerolipid
metabolic process category (Table 3; G0:0046486; adjusted p value = 4.5 x [10.sup.-19]) and with lipase activity (G0:0016298; adjusted p value = 5.2 x 10-9); M2 was mainly involved in learning or memory processes (Table 3; G0:0007611; adjusted p value = 4.0 x [10.sup.-5]) with genes related to cell adhesion molecule binding activity (G0:0050839; adjusted p value = 1.1 x 10-6); and M3 was overrepresented with genes belonging to neurotransmitter secretion process (Table 3; GO:0007269; adjusted p value = 5.3 x [10.sup.-12]) and with syntaxin-1 binding activity (G0:0017075; adjusted p value = 1.2 x [10.sup.-12]).
We previously demonstrated that hypertriglyceridemic transgenic mice overexpressing apoCIII exhibit increases in hepatic glycerolipid
content and liver oxidative stress.
However, six potential target pathways (glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism; phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan biosynthesis; glycine, serine, and threonine metabolism; phenylalanine metabolism; valine, leucine, and isoleucine biosynthesis; and glycerolipid
metabolism) were identified during the period of drug treatment (Figure 7(b); Table S2).
(plasmalogen) biosynthesis: DHAP-ATPase, alkyl-DHAP synthase 4.
The enriched functions for genes in two downregulated modules (d-1 and d-5) with higher enrichment scores showed that genes in module d-1 (e.g., MAPK1, MAPK14, MITF, RAF1, JAK1, HBEGF, ROS1, and STAT3) were related to cell surface receptor linked signal transduction (P=1.71E-03), and enzyme-linked receptor protein signaling pathway (P=2.02E-03); while genes in module d-5 (e.g., PIP5K1B, PIP5K1C, PIP4K2B, CXCL12, and FN1) were mainly enriched in phosphatidylinositol metabolic processes (P=4.24E-04), glycerolipid
metabolic processes (P=1.88E-03), and cell morphogenesis (P=2.06E-02; Table 4).
At the same time, anabolic processes, such as glycerolipid
production for the formation of plasma membranes, are increased during cell growth.