Qi et al., "SEIPIN regulates lipid droplet expansion and adipocyte development by modulating the activity of glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase
," Cell Reports, vol.
Conservation of catalytic residues suggested that LpxL is related to the glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT) family .
In the glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase from Cucurbita moschata, the His and Asp of the H[X.sub.4]E/D catalytic dyad are hydrogen-bonded, suggesting that Asp increases the [pK.sub.a] of His .
Once formed, FA-CoA is used for the first acylation of glycerol-3-phosphate via glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase
(GPAT) enzymes, which produces 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate (MAG-P) (Figure 2).
Glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT) which catalyzes the esterification of glycerol-3-phosphate with fatty acid to generate lysophosphatidic acids is the rate-limiting enzymes of TG synthesis, and its gene expression is activated by SREBP-1c .
Real-time RT-PCR analysis of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 (SREBP-1c) (a) and glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT) (b) mRNA levels in 1 mM FFA/BSA-treated HepG2 cells.
In this study, DR did not affect the expression of several genes in the LM for lipid metabolism (adipose triglyceride lipase, acyl-CoA synthetase long-chain family member, glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase
, and hydroxyacyl-Coenzyme A dehydrogenase) and fatty acid uptake (fatty acid translocase and lipoprotein lipase) at both P1 and P2.
ACC: acetyl-CoA carboxylase; ACL: ATP-citrate lyase; AGPAT: 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase; aP2: fatty acid binding protein; DGAT: diacylglycerol acyltransferase; ME: malic enzyme; FAS: fatty acid synthase; GPAT: glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase
; GPDH: glycerol phosphate dehydrogenase; LPL: lipoprotein lipase; MDH: malate dehydrogenase; OAA: oxaloacetate; PC: piruvate carboxylase; PDH; piruvate dehydrogenase; PEPCK: phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase; VLDL: very low-density lipoprotein.
RT-PCR was performed using Roche FastStart DNA Master HybProbe (Roche) and Taqman primers and probes for fatty acid synthase (FASN; Hs01005622), glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAM; Hs0157368), solute carrier family 2, member 1 (GLUT1, also known as SLC2A1; Hs0089268), Solute Carrier Family 2, member 4 (GLUT4, also known as SLC2A4; Hs00168966), Solute Carrier Family 2, member 5 (GLUT5, also known as SLC2A5; Hs0016172), adiponectin (Hs00605917), leptin (Hs00174877), and interleukin 6 (IL6; Hs00985639) obtained from Life Technologies.
Tu et al., "Pharmacological glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase inhibition decreases food intake and adiposity and increases insulin sensitivity in diet-induced obesity," The American Journal of Physiology--Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology, vol.
The synthesis of PA occurs by two acylation steps; first glycerol-3-phosphate is converted to 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate (lysophosphatidic acid) by glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase
. The 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate product is then acylated to 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate (phosphatidic acid) by 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase .