ELISA: enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; GAPDH: glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate
dehydrogenase; NF-[kappa]B: nuclear factor kappa B; TNF-[alpha]: tumor necrosis factor-alpha.
According to the results, compounds 1-12 interacted with the enzyme glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate
dehydrogenase attractively, and the compounds coumarin-5, coumarin-2, tiliroside, and chalepin, have lower interaction energy, showing to be more stable in complexes with the active site of the enzyme (GADPH).
(ANOVA followed by Bonferroni's test.) ROS: reactive oxygen species; BZYQD: Bu-ZhongYi-Qi decoction; DCFH-DA: dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate; DCF: 20,70-dichlorofluorescein; GAPDH: glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate
dehydrogenase; NAC: N-acetylcysteine.
MicroRNA genes were measured relative to U6 and other genes relative to the housekeeping gene for glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate
ADAMTS12 Forward AGTGGGCAACTGGAGTGAGT 67 bp product Reverse ACATGTGACACTGCGAATCC GAPDH Forward CCTGCACCACCAACTGCTTA 108 bp product Reverse TCTTCTGGGTGGCAGTGATG ADAMTS: A disintegrin-like and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs; GAPDH: Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate
GAPDH detoxifies As using arsenate instead of phosphate converting glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate
Another portion of formaldehyde is condensed with xylulose 5-phosphate by the third peroxisome enzyme--dihydroxyacetone synthase (Dhas EC 220.127.116.11) resulting in generation of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate
Some of the major moonlighting functions of glycolytic enzymes are transcriptional regulation (hexokinase-2, lactate dehydrogenase-A, and enolase 1), apoptosis (hexokinase and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate
dehydrogenase), and cell motility (glucose 6-phosphate isomerase) (reviewed by Kim and Dang 2005) .
BM-MSC in 3rd passage were treated with osteogenic medium consisting of DMEM medium (Gibco-Invitrogen) containing 10% FBS (Hyclone), 1 mM dexamethasone, 10 mg/mL glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate
, and 0.1 mM ascorbic acid (osteogenesis kit, Chemicon).
Monoclonal rabbit antibodies for AQP2-3 (Chemicon, Temecula, CA; 1:2000, 1:1000, and 1:1000, respectively), eNOS and nNOS (Santa Cruz, CA; 1:1000 and 1:1000, respectively), and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate
dehydrogenase (GAPDH) (Sigma, St.
The genes of interest were glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate
dehydrogenase (GAPDH, control), osteocalcin (BGLAP), transcription factor RunX2 (RunX), alkaline phosphatase (AP), and SMAD family member 4 (SMAD4) (Table 1).
(1996) Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate
and pyruvate as precursors of isoprenic units in an alternative non-mevalonate pathway for terpenoid biosynthesis.