glutaminase


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glutaminase

 [gloo-tam´ĭ-nās]
an enzyme that catalyzes the splitting of glutamine into glutamic acid and ammonia.

glu·ta·min·ase

(glū-tam'in-ās),
An enzyme in kidney and other tissues that catalyzes the hydrolysis of l-glutamine to ammonia and l-glutamate; an important enzyme in urinary ammonia formation.

glu·ta·min·ase

(glū-tam'in-ās)
An enzyme in kidney and other tissues that catalyzes the hydrolysis of l-glutamine to ammonia and l-glutamic acid; an important enzyme for urinary ammonia formation.
References in periodicals archive ?
Further characterization of glutaminase isozymes from Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
Glutaminase inhibitors target a chemical process called glutaminolysis, in which the amino acid glutamine is broken down, releasing energy that cancer cells use to grow.
[alpha]KG: [alpha]-ketoglutarate; D-Ser: D-Serine; GS: glutamine synthase; EAAT: excitatory amino acid transporter; EETs: epoxyeicosatrienoic acids; Glut-: glutamate; Gln: glutamine; GLS: glutaminase; mGluRI: group I metabotropic glutamate receptors; PG: prostaglandins; Pyr: pyruvate; TCA: tricarboxylic acid cycle.
GLS, the enzyme catalyzing the conversion of glutamine to GLU, which can enter the mitochondrion and the TCA cycle, represents a possible drug target since glutaminase inhibitors are available and are tested in clinical trials [106].
CB-839 is an investigational orally administered glutaminase inhibitor currently in Phase 1/2 clinical studies.
The key stemness genes glutaminase 2 (GLS2), cystathionine-beta-synthase (CBS), and cystathionine gamma-lyase (CTH) were enriched in CTC-MCC-41, whereas CD200 molecule (CD200), spalt like transcription factor 4 (SALL4), and inhibitor of DNA binding 1 (ID1) were over-represented in HT-29.
Activation of PPAR[alpha] suppresses anaplerosis from glutamine, by repressing the expression of glutaminase and glutamate dehydrogenase, thus potentially counteracting c-myc-dependent activation of glutaminolysis in tumor [97].
This induced the upregulation of GLS2 (Glutaminase 2), one of the miR-16 targets, which enhanced glutamine uptake and the rate of glutaminolysis, which is known to increase in cancer cells.
GA: [GABA.sub.A] receptors, GB: [GABA.sub.B] receptors, GAD: glutamate decarboxylase, A: AMPA receptors, N: NMDA receptors, M: metabotropic glutamate receptors, EAAT: excitatory amino acid transporters, blue dots: GABA, red dots: glutamate, Glu: glutamate, Gln: glutamine, GS: glutamine synthetase, GT: glutaminase, VGlut: vesicular glutamate transporter proteins, and (-): inhibitory effects.
Based on metabolomic and protein expression data, proteins involved in the lactate production (LDH-A), serine and one carbon metabolism (phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase and serine hydroxymethyltransferase 2), glutaminolysis (glutaminase), and fatty acid biosynthesis (fatty acid synthase), have been proposed for cancer therapy [85] and may also represent attractive therapeutic targets in TC.
In macrophages and microglia in active MS lesions, glutaminase, the enzyme that produces glutamate, reveals increased immunoreactivity [12].
To facilitate this cycle, neurons possess high levels of two glutaminase genes, GLS1 and GLS2 (phosphate-activated mitochondrial glutaminase), to function in the breakdown of glutamine to glutamate, a process that releases ammonia, but small amounts of glutaminase (mostly GLS1) have also been localized to astrocytes [91].

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