Abbreviations DKA: Diabetic ketoacidosis ICU: Intensive care unit PD-1: Antiprogrammed death 1 receptor PD-1L: Programmed death ligand GADA: Glutamic acid decarboxylase autoantibodies IAA: Insulin autoantibodies IA-2A: Islet antigen 2 autoantibodies ICA: Islet cell antibodies ZnT8A: Zinc transporter 8 autoantibodies.
 Undetectable GADA, IA-2, IAA This study Undetectable No DKA: diabetic ketoacidosis; F: female; NSCLC: nonsmall cell lung cancer; SCLC: small cell lung cancer; RCC: renal cell carcinoma; GADA: glutamic acid decarboxylase autoantibodies; IAA: insulin autoantibodies; ICA: islet cell antibodies; NA: not available; IA-2: islet 2 autoantibody.
Encephalitis associated with glutamic acid decarboxylase autoantibodies
in a child: a treatable condition?
Durif, "Intravenous immunoglobulin and rituximab for cerebellar ataxia with glutamic acid decarboxylase autoantibodies
," Cerebellum, vol.
Although questioned repeatedly , current criteria for the diagnosis of LADA remain age at the onset, the presence of positive diabetes-associated autoantibodies--islet-cell cytoplasm autoantibodies (ICA), glutamic acid decarboxylase autoantibodies
(GAD65A), insulinoma-associated-2 antibodies--tyrosine phosphatase associated (IA-2A), zinc transporter 8 autoantibodies (ZnT8A); and satisfying glycemic control without insulin treatment for at least 6 months after diagnosis [5-8].
McMenamin et al., "Neuronal surface and glutamic acid decarboxylase autoantibodies
in nonparaneoplastic stiff person syndrome," JAMA Neurology, vol.
Among type 1 diabetics, 27(67.5%) tested positive for glutamic acid decarboxylase autoantibodies
compared to 15(25%) in type 2 diabetics, 6(15%) among relatives of type 1, 7(11.7%) among relatives of type 2 diabetic patients, and none among controls.