glutamate decarboxylase


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glu·ta·mate de·car·box·yl·ase (GAD),

a carboxy-lyase converting l-glutamate to 4-aminobutyrate and CO2 as well as l-aspartate to 3-aminopropanoate and CO2; a defect in the binding of this protein's coenzyme is believed to cause pyridoxine dependency with seizures.

GLUL

An intronless gene on chromosome 1q31 that encodes a glutamine synthetase, which catalyses the synthesis of glutamine from glutamate and ammonia. Glutamine is a key source of energy and is involved in cell proliferation, inhibition of apoptosis, and cell signalling. GLUL is expressed during early foetal stages, and plays an important role in controlling pH by removing ammonia from circulation.

Molecular pathology
GLUL mutations are associated with congenital glutamine deficiency.
References in periodicals archive ?
Los genes de interes evaluados para este estudio fueron: Aminomethyltransferase, Glycine dehydrogenase, Glycine hydroxymethyltransferase, [DELTA]-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthase, Ornithine aminotransferase, Arginase, Alanine transaminase, Alanine-glyoxylate transaminase, Glutamate decarboxylase, Glutamate decarboxylase 1-2, Spermidine synthase, Aldehyde dehydrogenase, ATP-grasp domain-containing protein, Cysteine sulfinic acid decarboxylase1-2, Taurine transporter, HSP beta 1, Sodium- and chloride-dependent glycine transporter (Meng et al., 2013; Cross et al., 2014; Eierman & Hare, 2014).
The following antibodies were purchased from Abcam (Cambridge, United Kingdom): glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH, rabbit: ab34786), aspartate aminotransferase (AAT, mouse: ab93928), glutamate decarboxylase 65 and 67 (GAD65 and 67, both mouse: ab26113 and ab26116), phosphate-activated glutaminase (PAG, rabbit: ab93434), and glutamine synthetase (GS, rabbit: ab73593).
Honnorat, "Respective implications of glutamate decarboxylase antibodies in stiff person syndrome and cerebellar ataxia," Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases, vol.
Glutamate can also be synthesized by glutaminase using glutamine as a precursor [10] and can be converted to gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) by glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) [5].
This decreases the functioning of glutamate decarboxylase and converts glutamate to GABA causing a glutamatergic deficient state, leading to psychosis.
There have recently been studies suggesting that the occurrence of VIAAT is a good marker of GABAergic signaling in extra-brain tissue cells containing GABA and its synthesizing enzyme termed GAD (glutamate decarboxylase), such as the pancreatic islets (Chessler et al., 2002; Gammelsaeter et al., 2004; Suckow et al., 2006).
gadA/B encodes for glutamate decarboxylase. This enzyme catalyzes the a-decarboxylation of L-glutamic acid to yield [gamma]-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and carbon dioxide [4].
"Lab analysis of metagenomic DNA sequencing data allowed us to demonstrate that microbial glutamate decarboxylase encoding gene is very abundant in intestinal microbiota as compared to other body sites," Pokusaeva said.
The main inhibitory mediator in the brain, gamma amino butyric Acid (GABA), is formed from glutamate (excitatory) by the enzyme glutamate decarboxylase (GAD).
Rapid determination of glutamate decarboxylase activity from lactic acid bacteria by spectrometric method and its applications.
Two genes encode distinct glutamate decarboxylase. Neuron 7, 91-100.

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