glutamate


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glutamate

 [gloo´tah-māt]
a salt of glutamic acid; in biochemistry, the term is often used interchangeably with glutamic acid.

glu·ta·mate

(glū'tă-māt),
A salt or ester of glutamic acid.

glutamate

(glo͞o′tə-māt′)
n.
A salt or ester of glutamic acid, especially one that functions as a neurotransmitter that excites cells of the central nervous system.

glu·ta·mate

(glū'tă-māt)
A salt or ester of glutamic acid.

glutamate

A negatively-charged ion derived from GLUTAMIC ACID and an important excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. Glutamate can be used as a marker of progression in stroke; concentrations of glutamate are higher in the blood and cerebrospinal fluid of patients with progressive stroke than in those with stable cerebral infarcts. Glutamate, which is produced by neurons deprived of oxygen, prompts the production of highly reactive free radicals that can kill brain cells. There is some evidence that cannabinoids from marijuana can protect against this damage by donating electrons in the manner of the antioxidant vitamins C and E.

glutamate

the dissociated form of the amino acid GLUTAMIC ACID.

cone pedicle 

The wide synaptic terminal of a cone photoreceptor located in the outer molecular (outer plexiform) layer of the retina. There are deep pits (invaginations) in the base of the terminal that contain the dendrites of bipolar and horizontal cells, often two of the former and one of the latter, in each invagination. The neurotransmitter is glutamate, which is stored in vesicles contained in the terminals, and when the photoreceptors are stimulated by light the release of glutamate is decreased. See cone cell; hyperpolarization; neuro-transmitter.

neurotransmitter

A substance stored in the synaptic vesicles that is released when the axon terminal is excited by a nervous impulse. The substance then travels across the synaptic cleft to either excite or inhibit another neuron. This is accomplished by either decreasing the negativity of postsynaptic potentials (excitation), or increasing the negativity of postsynaptic potentials (inhibition). Common neurotransmitters include acetylcholine, dopamine, endorphins, adrenaline (epinephrine), gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), amino acids, such as glutamate and glycine, noradrenaline (norepinephrine), serotonin and substance P. Common neurotransmitters in the retina are glutamate (the primary excitatory neurotransmitter), GABA (inhibitory), glycine (inhibitory), dopamine (excitatory) and acetylcholine (excitatory). See neuron; synapse.

rod spherule 

The onion-shaped synaptic terminal of a rod photoreceptor located in the outer molecular (plexiform) layer of the retina. There is a deep pit (invagination) in the base of the terminal, which contains the dendrites of bipolar and horizontal cells, often two of each. The neurotransmitter is glutamate, which is stored in vesicles contained in the terminal, and when the photoreceptors are stimulated by light the release of glutamate is decreased. See rod cell; hyperpolarization; neuro-transmitter.
References in periodicals archive ?
One of the most used food additive is monosodium glutamate which is deeply involved in everyday life.
(5) Pharmacologically, riluzole is a glutamatergic modulator that increases glutamate reuptake into glial cells, decreases glutamate release, and increases AMPA trafficking.
The report offers detailed analysis on the manufacturing process and yield for sodium cocoyl glutamate
Further experiments revealed that removal of the glutamate receptor MGL-2 blocked both repetitive reversals and synaptic glutamate oscillations.
For perspective, in a single day the average American ingests one-half gram of MSG--far less than the average 4.6 grams consumed in Taiwan--along with 13 grams of naturally occurring glutamate from food.
Within the brain the excitotoxicity potential of glutamate arouses justifiable concern in cases where the conversion of glutamate into GABA is impeded or when the glutamate influx and engagement is excessive.
The experimental group B was given 0.08 mg/kg of monosodium glutamate (MSG) orally and experimental group C was given 0.08 mg/kg of MSG and 10 mg/kg of diltiazem in distilled water for 14 days.
Results demonstrated that when study participants cut monosodium glutamate from their diets, their symptoms improved.
Glutamate is one of the most important excitatory neurotransmitters in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS), including the retina [12].
Numerous experimental models of acute liver failure established a direct link between HE and increased brain glutamate load [7-9].
The secondary damage is due to (1) cytotoxicity of the blood; (2) excitotoxicity, due to the release of excitatory amino acids like glutamate from injured neurons; (3) spreading depression, a slow and short-lived depolarization wave that propagates through the brain; (4) hypermetabolism, a state of increased energy expenditure in response to injury; and (5) oxidative stress and inflammation [16].