Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are formed by non-enzymatic glycation of proteins or lipids by high serum glucose, methylglyoxal, and 3-deoxy glucosone
. AGEs, mainly [epsilon]N-carboxymethyllysine (CML) has role in the development and progression of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in diabetes.
Hayashi et al., "Peroxynitrite induces formation of [N.sup.[epsilon]]-(carboxymethyl)lysine by the cleavage of Amadori product and generation of glucosone
and glyoxal from glucose: novel pathways for protein modification by peroxynitrite," Diabetes, vol.
MDA, GO, MGO, 3-DG, glucosone
, and ribosone are highly reactive [alpha]- or [beta]-dicarbonyl compounds (Figure 1).
Autoxidative glycosylation is initiated by autoxidation of the aldose/ketose sugar to a more reactive dicarbonyl sugar (glucosone
), which then reacts with the protein.
The Diazyme enzymatic assay for GSP uses a mixture of proteases, including proteinase K, to digest GSP into low-molecular-weight glycated protein fragments and uses Diazyme's specific fructosaminase[TM], a microorganism-originated amadoriase to catalyze the oxidative degradation of Amadori product glycated protein fragments to yield protein fragments or amino acids, glucosone
, and [H.sub.2][O.sub.2].