* The glottal attack
is harmful, particularly for the lay person or beginning singer.
Of particular interest are the recommendations for medications, foods and behaviors that singers should avoid and explanations of the causes and remedies for glottal attack
and throat tension.
His fundamental frequency (speaking voice) was 124 Hz, and a hard glottal attack
and hyperfunction were noted.
There are also vocalises that improve resonance and articulation, that incorporate nasal exercises, tongue relaxation methods, and tactics to avoid the hard glottal attack
Additional therapeutic goals include the elimination of hard glottal attack
, balance of oral and nasal resonance, forward placement of voicing, and development of relaxed phonation and articulation.
Granulomas can occur as a result of the combination of acute mucosal ulceration of the vocal process, LPR, and chronic vocal trauma caused by throat clearing and/or a hard glottal attack
. (1,7,39-47) By itself, chronic vocal trauma can lead to vocal fold ulcers and granulomas, but LPR is a cofactor in most cases.
Specific behaviors that are often cited as causal may be divided into activities that occur while speaking (e.g., loud talking or hard glottal attack
) and those that occur as a result of non-speech vocal behaviors (e.g., grunting, throat clearing, loud, and hard laughing).
If, however, the instructor told Ben how to produce a more balanced onset and avoid the glottal attack
, he or she would be providing prescriptive feedback.
Breathy onset, also known as soft attack, whispery, or aspirate onset,19 commences vocal fold vibration with an "audible breath escap[ing] before phonation begins."20 Hard onset, also known as pressed or glottal onset, hard or glottal attack
, initiates tone with "the vocal folds closing tightly before phonation starts."21 Vocal onsets (there is also balanced onset) are used to shape the phrase with varying artistic expressions.
(8) The coup de glotte, suggested by Miller as a remediation for breathiness, may not be the best option for worship singers, since it may increase glottal attack
, a tendency already strong in the majority of singers.
Singers who belt (and their speaking counterparts, cheerleaders) use very high breath pressure plus the glottal attack
, and they use these abusive behaviors for unusually long periods of time.
In addition to Mandl, there were at least four more critics of Garcia, whose assessments of his method varied in severity from simply advocating a breathy or "simultaneous" glottal attack
as a way to cushion the glottal plosive (which they all perceived the coup de la glotte to be), to American physician Dr.