Humeral avulsion of the glenohumeral ligament
: imaging features and a review of the literature.
Labral lesions were associated with anteriosuperior labral fraying, an abnormal superior glenohumeral ligament
and increased passive internal rotation range of motion.
Tenuta, "Humeral avulsions of the glenohumeral ligament
: imaging features and a review of the literature," American Journal of Roentgenology, vol.
Two double-loaded 4.5 mm screw-in suture anchors were then placed, and the inferior glenohumeral ligament
and overlying subscapularis were repaired using modified Mason-Allen stitches (Fig.
Anatomy and function of the glenohumeral ligaments
in anterior shoulder instability.
The three most common labral variants include a sublabral foramen with a cord-like middle glenohumeral ligament
(MGHL) occurring in 8.6% of patients, a sublabral foramen in 3.3% of patients, and an absent anterosuperior labrum with a cord-like MGHL, called a Buford complex, present in 1.5% of patients.
External rotation greater than 90[degrees] at the side is suggestive of anterior ligamentous hyperlaxity; asymmetrical hyperabduction of more than 20[degrees] compared to the contralateral arm is indicative of a stretched inferior glenohumeral ligament
The static stabilizers of the joint include the capsule, the glenohumeral ligaments
, the labrum, negative pressure within the joint capsule, and the bony congruity of the joint.
This variation differs from a Buford complex, which is an absent anterosuperior labrum in combination with a cord-like middle glenohumeral ligament
(7,8) Secondly, the appearance of a cord-like middle glenohumeral ligament
, with an absent anterosuperior labrum, coined the Buford complex, has also been described.
When the humerus is abducted to 90[degrees] and higher--occurring during the early cocking phase and continuing until the follow-through phase--the inferior glenohumeral ligament
limits anterior and posterior translation of the humeral head on the glenoid.
Maffet and coworkers23 added three additional types to Snyder's classification: Type V lesions involve an anteroinferior Bankart lesion extending upward to include separation of the biceps tendon; Type VI lesions consist of an unstable radial or flap tear associated with separation of the biceps anchor; and Type VII lesions involve extension of the SLAP lesion beneath the middle glenohumeral ligament