Capsular lesions with glenohumeral ligament
injuries in patients with primary shoulder dislocation: magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance arthrography evaluation.
Addressing the humeral avulsion of the glenohumeral ligament
and subscapularis tear with early surgical repair, and anticipating eventual nerve recovery, allowed this teenage patient to regain normal function and to return to playing football within a year following injury.
The continuity of the labrum with the inferior glenohumeral ligament
is thought to be biomechanically significant as detachment of this capsulolabral complex has been involved in glenohumeral instability.
In their description, they combined a Bristow tenodesis with a standard intra-articular Bankart repair to recreate the glenoid concavity and reinforce the inferior glenohumeral ligaments
and lower the subscapularis.
Humeral avulsion of glenohumeral ligaments
(HAGL) lesions are another known cause of anterior shoulder instability.
This variation differs from a Buford complex, which is an absent anterosuperior labrum in combination with a cord-like middle glenohumeral ligament
They also found that a SLAP lesion places increased strain on the inferior glenohumeral ligament
, which could theoretically lead to damage of the ligament and subsequent anterior instability.
In the abducted and externally rotated position, the long head of the biceps limits anterior translation of the humeral head, acts as a restraint to excess external rotation, and alleviates strain on the inferior glenohumeral ligament
This complex consists of a cordlike middle glenohumeral ligament
that attaches to the base of the biceps anchor, along with the absence of labral tissue on the anterior superior glenoid.
In Type I, the glenoid labrum and inferior glenohumeral ligament
(IGHL) complex is normal.
The goal is to produce high contrast between the labrum, capsule, capsular recesses, glenohumeral ligaments
(GHLs), and articular surface of the rotator cuff.
The stability of the shoulder is in large part due to the shoulder capsule, which includes the synovial membrane, the fibrous capsule consisting of the coracohumeral ligament, and the superior, middle, and inferior glenohumeral ligaments