gestational diabetes mellitus

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ges·ta·tion·al di·a·be·tes mellitus (GDM),

carbohydrate intolerance of variable severity with onset or first recognition during pregnancy.

Gestational diabetes occurs in 10-15% of all pregnancies. Although it typically resolves after delivery, as many as 50% of women with this disorder eventually develop impaired glucose tolerance or diabetes mellitus (DM). Factors that increase the likelihood of gestational diabetes include obesity, maternal age over 25, family history of DM, and prior history of gestational diabetes. DM occurring during pregnancy increases the risk of maternal pyelonephritis and of certain congenital anomalies, and is often associated with polyhydramnios and fetal macrosomia, with resultant dystocia. The infant of a woman with gestational diabetes is more likely to develop obesity, impaired glucose tolerance, or DM. It is recommended that pregnant women at risk be screened for gestational diabetes between the 24th and 28th week of pregnancy. Gestational diabetes can usually be managed by restriction of carbohydrate intake, but insulin is sometimes required.

gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM)

a disorder characterized by an impaired ability to metabolize carbohydrates, usually caused by a deficiency of insulin or insulin resistance, occurring in pregnancy. It disappears after delivery of the infant but, in a significant number of cases, returns years later as type 2 diabetes mellitus. Evidence suggests that placental lactogen and considerable destruction of insulin by the placenta play a role in precipitating GDM. Treatment consists of self-monitoring of blood glucose, insulin administration, increased activity, a meal plan that controls the amount of carbohydrates eaten, and an adequate intake of calcium and iron. See also diabetes mellitus.

gestational diabetes mellitus

Glucose intolerance first detected during pregnancy Associations ↑ Maternal and fetal perinatal complications, tendency to develop glucose intolerance in absence of pregnancy 5-10 yrs later Incidence Up to 5% of pregnancies Complications–maternal Preterm labor, HTN, polyhydramnios, C-section for macrosomia, ↑ subsequent DM Complications–fetal Macrosomia, shoulder dystocia, perinatal mortality–2 to 5%, congenital malformation–cardiac, CNS. See Fetal diabetes 'syndrome. ', Glucose tolerance curve.

diabetes mellitus

a broadly applied term used to denote a complex group of syndromes that have in common a disturbance in the oxidation and utilization of glucose, which is secondary to a malfunction of the beta cells of the pancreas, whose function is the production and release of insulin. Because insulin is involved in the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins and fats, diabetes is not limited to a disturbance of glucose homeostasis alone.
Diabetes mellitus has been recorded in all species but is most commonly seen in middle-aged to older, obese, female dogs. A familial predisposition has been suggested. It is possible to identify two types of diabetes, corresponding to the disease in humans, depending on the response to an intravenous glucose tolerance test. Type I is insulin-dependent and comparable to the juvenile onset form of the disease in children in which there is an absolute deficiency of insulin—there is a very low initial blood insulin level and a low response to the injected glucose. This form is seen in a number of dog breeds, particularly the Keeshond, Doberman pinscher, German shepherd dog, Poodle, Golden retriever and Labrador retriever.
Type II is non-insulin-dependent, similar to the adult onset diabetes in humans due to pancreatic damage—there is a high or normal initial blood insulin level and no increase in insulin levels as a result of the glucose load. It is the form seen most often in cats.

brittle diabetes mellitus
diabetes mellitus that is difficult to control, characterized by unexplained oscillation between hypoglycemia and diabetic ketoacidosis.
gestational diabetes mellitus
diabetes mellitus in which onset or recognition of impaired glucose tolerance occurs during pregnancy.
hyperosmolar diabetes mellitus
a syndrome of marked hyperglycemia and hyperosmolarity with central nervous signs, resembling diabetic coma.
insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM)
due to deficient secretion of insulin by the beta cells of the pancreas. See diabetes mellitus type I (above).
juvenile diabetes mellitus
develops in the young; see diabetes mellitus type I (above).
non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM)
the secretion of insulin is unimpaired but the response of tissue receptors is diminished. See diabetes mellitus type II (above).
secondary diabetes mellitus
hyperglycemia may occur in association with pancreatitis, hyperadrenocorticism, acromegaly, and treatment with glucocorticoids or progesterone.
steroid diabetes mellitus
altered carbohydrate tolerance is induced by glucocorticoids and progestogens. Hyperglycemia and diabetes mellitus can be associated with the administration of such drugs or hyperadrenocorticism.

Patient discussion about gestational diabetes mellitus

Q. What complications have you had with gestational diabetes? I have just found out that I have gestational diabetes and I am over 37 weeks pregnant. It has gone undiagnosed and we have found out that I why my baby is so large. She is already 8 pounds 12 ounces based on the ultra sound. My concerns are now with my baby and I want her to be healthy. Any personal experiences would be great!

A. Thanks for the help..

Q. What is Gestational Diabetes? What is Gestational Diabetes?

A. Gestational diabetes is a condition where you have high blood glucose (sugar) levels and it happens for the first timing during your pregnancy. About 7% of all pregnant women in the U.S. are diagnosed with gestational diabetes.

Q. How do I prevent Gestational diabetes? The first pregnancy I developed Gestational diabetes at the 26 week. How do I prevent it from happening?

A. There are no guarantees when it comes to preventing gestational diabetes — but the more healthy habits you can adopt before pregnancy, the better. Because the risk factors are the same as diabetes type 2 – the same measures should be taken- Eat healthy foods, Get more physical activity, Lose excess pounds.

More discussions about gestational diabetes mellitus
References in periodicals archive ?
Increasing prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus and its co-morbidities among females need immediate attention in terms of prevention and health education.
The effect of gestational diabetes mellitus on pregnancy outcomes.
Impact of different levels of carbohydrate intolerance on neonatal outcomes classically associated with gestational diabetes mellitus.
Increased body fat percentage and physical inactivity are independent predictors of gestational diabetes mellitus in South Asian women.
High prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus in Beijing: Effect of maternal birth weight and other risk factors.
Metformin versus Insulin in the Management of Pre-Gestational Diabetes Mellitus in Pregnancy and Gestational Diabetes Mellitus at the Korle Bu Teaching Hospital: A Randomized Clinical Trial.
Prevalence and risk factors for gestational diabetes mellitus in Tehran.
Keywords: Gestational diabetes mellitus, triglyceride, total cholesterol, fasting blood glucose.
She had conducted research on the high prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus in the UAE.
In Table 2, the magnitude of the effect estimates reported was attenuated and the p-trend was no longer statistically significant, such that the odds ratios for gestational diabetes mellitus with increasing urinary cadmium tertile were 1.
Keywords: Gestational diabetes mellitus, oral glucose tolerance test, diagnostic criteria, prevalence