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pertaining to gestation.
gestational age the estimated age or stage of maturity of a conceptus. Gestational age of the newborn infant can be estimated by noting various physical characteristics that normally appear at each stage of fetal development. Gestational age assessment of the newborn is facilitated by using a scoring system such as the one developed by Dubowitz and Dubowitz, or a modification of it by Ballard.

As the preterm newborn emerges from the birth canal it will be covered with a rather heavy coating of vernix caseosa; the full-term newborn has only a small amount of this cheeselike substance in body creases and the hair. By the 40th to 42nd week of gestation the skin of the newborn is pale and opaque, whereas the skin of the baby born before this period of gestation may be thin and transparent; venules can be seen under the skin on the abdomen.

At about 20 weeks the body is covered with fine hair called lanugo, which begins to disappear as maturation continues, first from the face, then the trunk, and finally from the extremities. At nine months gestation lanugo is usually seen only over the shoulders. Wrinkling of the soles of the feet is another indication of the newborn's gestational age. It occurs first near the toes and progresses toward the heels so that by the 40th week the entire sole is covered with creases. The preterm newborn will have smooth soles with only a few creases. “Cotton wool” hair that tends to stick together in small bunches so that it is difficult to distinguish one strand from another is common until the 38th week of gestation. This sign is of less significance in black infants. Cartilage of the ear can also be used to assess gestational age. Until about 32 or 33 weeks the pinnae stay folded when bent inward; by 36 weeks they spring back when released. At term they are firm enough to stand erect from the sides of the head.
Miller-Keane Encyclopedia and Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing, and Allied Health, Seventh Edition. © 2003 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. All rights reserved.


(jes-ta'shon) [L. gestare, to carry around]
In mammals, the length of time from conception to birth. The average gestation time is a species-specific trait. In humans, the average length, as calculated from the first day of the last normal menstrual period, is 280 days, with a normal range of 259 days (37 weeks) to 287 days (41 weeks). Infants born prior to the 37th week are considered premature and those born after the 41st week, postmature. See: pregnancy See: gestational assessmentgestational, adjective

abdominal gestation

Ectopic pregnancy in which the embryo develops in the abdominal cavity.

cornual gestation

Pregnancy in an ill-developed cornu of a bicornuate uterus.

ectopic gestation

Pregnancy in which the fetus develops outside the uterus.

interstitial gestation

Tubal pregnancy in which the embryo is developed in a portion of the fallopian tube that traverses the wall of the uterus.

high-order multifetal gestation

A pregnancy in which three or more fetuses grow in the uterus.

multiple gestation

The presence of two or more embryos in the uterus. Twin and higher gestations have greatly increased in the past two decades due to the increased use of ovulation induction agents and assisted reproduction technologies. Currently 3% of all births are multiple gestations. When twins are diagnosed by ultrasound early in the first trimester, in about half of these cases one twin will silently abort, and this may or may not be accompanied by bleeding. This phenomenon has been termed the vanishing twin. The incidence of birth defects in each fetus of a twin pregnancy is twice that in singular pregnancies. Triplet, quadruplet, and higher gestation pregnancies are usually a result of commonly used fertility drugs. Multiple gestations are associated with an increased risk of perinatal morbidity and mortality.

prolonged gestation

Pregnancy that continues past 41 weeks.

secondary gestation

Pregnancy in which the embryo becomes dislodged from the original seat of implantation and continues to develop in a new situation.

secondary abdominal gestation

Extrauterine pregnancy in which the embryo, originally situated in the oviduct or elsewhere, has developed in the abdominal cavity.

tubal gestation

Ectopic pregnancy in which the embryo grows in the fallopian tube.

tuboabdominal gestation

Extrauterine pregnancy in which the embryonic sac is formed partly in the abdominal extremity of the oviduct and partly in the abdominal cavity.

tubo-ovarian gestation

Extrauterine pregnancy in which the embryonic sac is partly in the ovary and partly in the abdominal end of the fallopian tube.

uterotubal gestation

Pregnancy in which the ovum develops partially in the uterine end of the fallopian tube and partially within the cavity of the uterus.
Medical Dictionary, © 2009 Farlex and Partners

Patient discussion about gestational

Q. Will she be tired all her pregnancy? My wife is 6 weeks pregnant with our first baby. She is tired all the time and goes to bed at 7 PM. Will she be like this the whole pregnancy?

A. Don't worry, this is very common! Here are some tips to help her with her tiredness:
-She should take short breaks during the day and lie down and lift her feet up. This can help her feel better and less tired. If she is at work and can't lie down, then she should just pick her legs up on a chair.
-She should take a few short naps during the day and sleep at least 7-8 hours a night.
- She should sleep on her left side as this improves the blood flow to the womb.

Q. Is this the symptom of pregnancy? I have burning rashes all over my face and neck and it is itching a lot. I’ve tried with popular brand lotions and all of them are in vain. I have consulted skin specialist also and he said this is not an allergic reaction. Can anyone give me some insight on this and what I could use to get rid of this crazy outbreak of rashes every now and then….. It’s just my skin got really sensitive for some reason... Is this the symptom of pregnancy?

A. I really doubt this. Morning sickness is one of the primary symptoms of pregnancy and you didn’t say anything about it. But developing rashes might be due to any skin deficiency for which you may have to consult a physician than forming your own conclusions. I don't know about the rash, but I broke out a lot during my first pregnancy. It's not a sure sign, but possible. My skin was itchy everywhere when I was pregnant. Every woman is different, some break out with bad acne when they get pregnant, and other's clear up. I broke out bad, but if you know your body, then it could be a sign!

Q. Which vaccinations are allowed during pregnancy? I'm 13 weeks pregnant and planning to travel to east Africa.

A. if you have to make some "vaccinations" to travel outbroad, you can also find out if a homeopathic vaccination exists. this will be okay for you and for sure.

Please check urgently the links on this page before you would like to go on with any vaccination, you should check out this very long list of links:

at the bottom you will also find links in english. vaccinations in general are very disputable/dubious and it is probably time that we learn about it.

More discussions about gestational
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References in periodicals archive ?
Table-II: Anova Comparisons of birth weight, maternal prolactin and cord blood prolactin between uncomplicated pregnancies, Gestational hypertension, Gestational diabetes and preterm labour groups.
At the end of the study, the researchers found that those who switched to the Mediterranean-style diet were 35 percent less likely to develop gestational diabetes compared with the ones who did not change their diet.
High uric acid correlates in assessing pregnant women in first trimester to predict gestational diabetes mellitus development.
Maternal diabetes was classified as 'pre-gestational' if the patient was a known diabetic at first antenatal visit and 'gestational' if diabetes was diagnosed at or after first antenatal visit, using the WHO criteria.
In further multivariate analysis, adverse maternal outcomes associated with gestational weight gain above that recommended by the guidelines included hypertensive diseases of pregnancy for any parity (aOR, 1.84) and increased risk of cesarean delivery in nulliparous and multiparous women (aORs, 1.44 and 1.26, respectively).
Women who went on to develop gestational diabetes had higher HbA1c levels (an average of 5.3 percent), compared to those without gestational diabetes (an average HbA1c level of 5.1 percent).
Insulin is therefore recommended for management of gestational diabetes to prevent babies from development of macrosomia which may also help in planning vaginal delivery and can reduce cesarean sections rate as well.
"Our results suggest that the HbA1c test potentially could help identify women at risk for gestational diabetes early in pregnancy, when lifestyle changes may be more effective in reducing their risk," said the study's senior author, Cuifin Zhang of the Epidemiology Branch at NIH's Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development.
New Jersey insurance regulations define a gestational carrier as "a woman who has become pregnant with an embryo or embryos that are not part of her genetic or biologic entity, and who intends to give the child to the biological parents after birth." Under the New Jersey insurance regulations, many medical insurance policies are required to pay for gestational carrier procedures.
Prof Dr Abbas Raza said that awareness, timely diagnosis and proper management of gestational diabetes were necessary to save mothers and fetuses from lifelong complication.
* Xanthurenic acid (XA)--a tryptophan metabolite--is high in serum in gestational diabetes