Imported germ plasms
were screened under high disease pressure in field conditions.
"What is the advantage of germ plasm
such that it would have evolved several times?
about germ plasm
became American scientific orthodoxy, its implications
A few countries even bank germ plasm
of shepherd dogs because, in some environments, "you cannot herd sheep without them," she notes.
This will involve facilitating the exchange of germ plasm
with poor countries, protecting genetic resources, strengthening farmers' rights, preventing exclusive licensing of so-called enabling technologies, and helping to build scientific capacity in Africa.
Thus abilities that have not yet been incorporated into the germ plasm
are not lost until their rediscovery by members of following generations, but instead are handed on from person to person, from generation to generation.
The grant will aid in reviving populations and provide materials for research and germ plasm
storage by addressing reproductive and conservation problems of 23 highly endangered plant species.
Susceptibility to clover yellow vein potyvirus in the United States germ plasm
collection of subterranean clover.
They say that WTO regulations allowing transnational corporations to patent germ plasm
from seeds their ancestors have bred over millennia amounts to "bio-piracy." Indian peasant leader Lal Shankar called their struggle "a fight of indigenous agriculture and traditional systems against the North-dominated gene technology and free market." He added, "They are stealing and creating hybrid seeds and then selling them back to us." Indian farmers have singled out biotech giant Monsanto for its heavily hyped public relations claims and full-page ads about ending hunger.
Muller, "Human Evolution by Voluntary Choice of Germ Plasm
," Science 134 (8 September 1961) 643-49; and his Out of the Night: A Biologist's View of the Future (New York: Garland, 1984; original ed.
With the drive for export monoculture and the spread of the uniform seeds of the Green Revolution, the dominant model for agricultural production in the South has focused on "external" inputs: imported germ plasm
, technologies and the intellectual capabilities of outside "experts." Ironically, the Green Revolution's approach, with its high-input, high-tech and high-yielding crops and livestock breeds, has proven so "successful" that it has nearly extinguished the most vital internal resources that farming communities have: farmers' traditional knowledge and the rich reservoirs of plant and animal genetic diversity they have selected and improved for generations.
And it owns the germ plasm
that is the basis of one-third of the corn seed stock used in the U.S.