We identified several pathways for potential environmental uranium exposure in our study population, including occupation as mine workers, geophagia
, drinking of nonbottled water and consumption of vegetables and animal products grown in the vicinity of mine tailings, which could be related to increased uranium exposure.
General pica and geophagia
prevalence of 48% and 28%, respectively, have been reported in Ghana among women of reproductive age [1,10].
Young children are at particular risk for infection if they place fecally contaminated objects or fingers into their mouths or have syndromes such as pica or geophagia
. Once ingested, larvae migrate through the brain (neural larva migrans), eye (ocular larva migrans), and other organs (visceral larva migrans) (1).
Small children are particularly vulnerable through accidental geophagia
. Public health concerns arise where raccoon and human populations overlap.
The definition can be broadened to encompass any behavior manifested by the eating of a non-food that is unusual in kind or quantity (2) including ice (pagophagia), hair, plaster, clay or dirt (geophagia
), laundry and corn starch (amylophagia), ashes, and cigarette butts.
 Poor personal hygiene, consumption of raw vegetables grown in contaminated kitchen gardens, geophagia
or soil eating is a specific type of pica that increases the risk of toxocariasis, especially in children living in homes with puppies .
in Man: Its Nature and Nutritional Effects, American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 21(12), 1384-93.
Infections in humans typically occur in children who have the disorders pica or geophagia
and ingest B.
(intentional ingestion of soil/sand, clay blocks and mud) is defined as a form of pica, and has been known for centuries.111 A variety of reasons for geophagia
have been postulated, including religious, cultural, nutritional and medicinal practices, famine, perceived enhancement of personal appearance, pregnancy-related cravings, and enjoyment of the taste, texture or smell of the substance consumed.
Young children are at particular risk for infection as a result of behaviors such as pica and geophagia
and placing potentially contaminated fingers and other objects (e.g., toys) into their mouths.
procyonis NLM in an adult was in a developmentally disabled 21-yearold adult known to exhibit geophagia
and pica (4).