The MF has recently been subject of many studies due to its importance in gaining anesthesia in the region of anterior mandible and also to gain surgical access in endodontic surgery, dental implant placement, genioplasty
, orthognathic surgery, fracture management and forensics 1,6,11,12.
(14) Journal Evidence GoR Level British Journal of Oral 1b A and Maxillofacial Surgery Table III.
Long-term skeletal and soft-tissue responses after advancement genioplasty
. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2006; 130: 8-17.
(c) Maxilla A-P Vert ANS +3.0 -0.2 PNS +3.0 -2.1 Mx 1 tip +2.0 0.0 Molar Mb cusp tip +2.2 -1.0 Mandible A-P Vert Md1 tip -3.9 +1.2 Molar MB cusp tip -4.1 +2.3 B point -4.8 +1.4 Pog -5.4 +1.4 Genioplasty
0.0 0.0 (d) Maxilla A-P Vert ANS +2.2 -3.5 PNS +2.7 +2.1 Mx 1 tip +6.0 -3.0 Molar Mb cusp tip +5.0 -0.9 Mandible A-P Vert Md1 tip -4.2 +8.2 Molar MB cusp tip -4.2 +4.3 B point -0.6 +7.2 Pog +1.7 +7.8 Genioplasty
Keywords: Additive manufacturing; Computer Aided Design (CAD); Genioplasty
; Surgical template; Casting
In the recent past there is a shift of paradigm from Angles to soft tissue profile as soft tissues largely determines the limitations of orthodontic treatment, from the perspectives of esthetics, function, anchorage planning, retention, relapse and stability.1,2 Growth modification and surgical orthodontics are also aimed at improving the esthetics.3,4 Surgical camouflage including rhinoplasty, genioplasty
, cheiloplasty and maloplasty as adjunctive orthodontic procedure has become popular in the recent past again with the aim to improve the profiles.5,6 Orthodontist thus must plan treatment within the patient's limits of soft tissue adaptation and soft tissue contours.
Exclusion criteria were tonsillectomy, adenoidectomy, genioplasty
, other surgeries for chronic diseases of the upper airways, and excessive obesity.
Chung, "Vulnerability of the inferior alveolar nerve and mental nerve during genioplasty
: an anatomic study," Journal of Craniofacial Surgery, vol.
Originally, that paper was not intended to present the method but to demonstrate bone augmentation with a thin cortical bone at the gap created on the genial segment when performing advancement genioplasty
. Thin cortical bone was harvested from the sharp lateral upper edge of the advanced genial segment and transferred to the midpoint just leaning on the anterior aspect of the tooth-bearing segment.
Despite the several techniques reported in the literature (e.g., surgical reduction of the tongue base, tongue base stabilization, genioglossus advancement, mortised genioplasty
, tongue radiofrequency treatment, hyoepiglottoplasty, and hyoid suspension), many of them should be critically analyzed anyway because they are extremely invasive.