In this case, sex chromosomes and autosomal polymorphisms should not be in genetic equilibrium
and there should be differences in the extent of chromosome pairing and morphologies of chromocenters when putative parental and combinational types are compared.
Estimates of both t and [N.sub.f] depend on r, which is not known for control regions for guillemots; however, r cancels from equation (3), so that populations may be considered to be in genetic equilibrium
(and to have undergone complete lineage sorting) if [Delta] [greater than] 4 [Pi] / g.
Also demonstrated was a disturbance of genetic equilibrium
in the animal groups, estimated according to the Hardy- Weinberg formula on the basis of the polymorphism within the MC4R/NcoI genotype groups.
The gene distribution of GUJ0077 presented significant deviations from the genetic equilibrium
(P(less than)0.05) of the Chinese Yellow Quail groups.
gallicus is in genetic equilibrium
, the majority of populations studied are at least moderately linked by seed flow.
He also describes how these techniques can be used to test hypotheses about population structure and genetic equilibrium
. Via reviews alternative models for the evolution of phenotypic plasticity and provides an instructive description of design and analysis of quantitative-genetics experiments on host specialization in pea aphids (Chapters 3 and 4).
In addition, the most commonly used estimators of gene flow, such as [N.sub.m] = 0.25(1-[F.sub.ST])/[F.sub.ST], (1.0171 to 3.7246 for this study), are derived on the basis of simplified models of population structure that assume constant population sizes, symmetrical migration at constant rates, and population persistence for periods long enough for achievement of genetic equilibrium
Large population sizes (as occur in many marine species) slow both genetic drift and any approach to genetic equilibrium
(Birky et al.
We mentioned in the text that, under a mixed-mating model at genetic equilibrium
, F = S/(2 - S) with S the selfing rate.
when more than one ecological niche is available.
We began by assuming that the population starts with unrelated individuals (i.e., that F, [Theta], and [Alpha] were zero), and expected gene correlations were obtained for generations subsequent to the initial generation until genetic equilibrium
and population growth under density-regulated selection.