genetic engineering


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ge·net·ic en·gi·neer·ing

internal manipulation of basic genetic material of an organism to modify biologic heredity or to produce peptides of high purity, such as hormones or antigens.

genetic engineering

n.
Scientific alteration of the structure of genetic material in a living organism. It involves the production and use of recombinant DNA and has been employed to create bacteria that synthesize insulin and other human proteins.

genetic engineer n.

biotechnology

Any technological application that uses biological systems, living organisms or derivatives thereof, to make or modify products or processes for specific use.

Biotech tools
Recombinant DNA, monoclonal antibody and bioprocessing techniques, cell fusion.
 
Biotech products
Antibiotics, insulin, interferons, recombinant DNA, and techniques (e.g., waste recycling).
 
Ancient forms of biotechnology
Production of bread, cheese, wine, beer.

genetic engineering

Biological engineering, genetic modification, recombinant DNA technology Molecular biology The manipulation of a living genome by introducing or eliminating specific genes through recombinant DNA techniques, which may result in a new capability–eg production of different substances or new functions, gene repair or replacement

genetic engineering

The deliberate alteration, for practical purposes, of the GENOME of a cell so as to change its hereditable characteristics. This is done mainly by recombinant DNA techniques using gene copies obtained by the POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION. Enzymes (restriction enzymes) are used to cut the nucleic acid molecule at determinable positions and short lengths of DNA from another organism are inserted. The second cell will now contain genes for the property or characteristic borrowed from the first cell. The genes might, for instance, code for the production of a useful protein such as insulin or some food material. Bacteria, yeasts and other organisms are used as the hosts for the new gene sequences and these organisms can be cloned in enormous numbers to produce the desired effects, or substances, for which the new genes code. Well over 100 valuable drugs and vaccines have been produced in this way, including human insulin, growth hormone, interferons, hepatitis vaccine, digoxin monoclonal antibody, orthoclonal OK3, somatotropin, TISSUE PLASMINOGEN ACTIVATOR (TPA), erythropoietin, granulocyte MACROPHAGE colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) and Factor VIII. Cloned copies of the genes for many genetic diseases have been made available for use as probes for the identification of the disease by AMNIOCENTESIS, before birth. The possibility also arises of correcting genetic defects in early embryos. Genetic engineering offers almost unlimited possibilities for the advancement of medicine, science and technology, but strict control is also necessary if the many manifest dangers are to be avoided.

genetic engineering

a broad term for all those processes that result in the directed modification of the genetic complement of an organism. The term applies to a wide range of genetical techniques, for example, plant and animal breeding to improve physiological performance by SELECTION, and GENE CLONING techniques for the deliberate transfer of genetic material from one organism to another where it is not normally found. For example, a gene can be removed from human cells and transferred to microbial cells (using BACTERIOPHAGE or PLASMID vectors) where the ‘foreign’ gene can direct the formation of useful products. There are many applications of genetic engineering in industry, agriculture and medicine. In industry a range of recombinant proteins has been obtained, for example INSULIN, INTERFERON and HUMAN GROWTH HORMONE. Genetic engineering is also being used in the development of VACCINES, novel plant varieties etc. See also TRANSGENESIS, PROTEIN ENGINEERING.

Genetic engineering

The manipulation of genetic material to produce specific results in an organism.
Mentioned in: Gene Therapy
References in periodicals archive ?
Since public-private partnerships are intrinsic to California agriculture, we investigated if industry pest and disease priorities were aligned with genetic engineering research being performed at public institutions.
In its 2010 report, NAS concluded that genetic engineering might not enhance agriculture everywhere, but it does significantly improve agriculture in many places and sectors.
However, the species-specific differences in rubber biochemistry described have considerable relevance to genetic engineering programs.
This book documents in one handy volume the global negative effects of the present-day overly-commercialized model of biotechnology/ genetic engineering (BT/GE) research on health, food security and indigenous economies.
An alternative low-cost effective approach is to enhance folate content in crops with the tools of genetic engineering. Therefore, understanding the folate synthesis pathway and its unique transport and catabolism are critical to any genetic engineering efforts to enhance folate content in plants.
Arif says there are many advanced projects in the world, specifically China, where genetic engineering in manufacturing viruses is used in forestry and agriculture as biological control agents.
Canadian Bill C-6, for example, which purported to prohibit various specified types of genetic engineering or cloning techniques, will not in fact, do so.
Economic issues rose to the forefront and environmental concerns, including genetic engineering, were seen as less central to the core mission of challenging the WTO and other global institutions.
Genetic engineering has and will continue to shape our world.
Walter de Gruyter (New York/Berlin) has begun the publication of the Journal of International Biotechnology Law, a new title for courts and counsel dealing with the legal implications of the latest developments in the spheres of biotechnology and genetic engineering. An annual print or online subscription costs $475; a combined annual print and online subscription costs $500.
For Marcelo Rubinstein, who oversees the project at the Institute of Research on Genetic Engineering and Molecular Biology in Buenos Aires, the mice are Argentina's contribution to the world of genetic research.
We are already having trouble dealing with the limited forms of cloning and genetic engineering that we are capable of today.