Recently, a generalized multifactor dimensionality reduction (GMDR) approach emerged as a promising tool and has been used for detecting gene-gene and gene-environment interactions
in either dichotomous or continuous phenotypes, as well as permitting adjustment for discrete and quantitative covariates and enhancing prediction accuracy [13,14].
Two independent studies regarded gene-environment interactions
and suggested that CYP2D6 poor metabolizers (PM), who were exposed to pesticides, exhibited an increased risk for PD both compared with unexposed subjects and pesticide-exposed CYP2D6 extensive metabolizers (EMs) [53, 54].
Given the gene-environment interaction
identified, we performed genotype stratified analyses in the combined sample (discovery and replication) as well as additional explorative analyses assessing the robustness of the observed [PM.sub.10]-CDH13 interaction with a particular focus on smoking and on weight-related variables.
The results of this study showed no significant association between gene-environment interaction
terms (rs1380--allele C x multigravida) as risk for developing VTE in women aged 18-80+.
The literature surrounding specific gene-environment interactions
in the area of alcohol use has developed largely independently of the latent gene-environment interaction
literature reviewed above.
However, one area that requires further methods development is gene-environment interaction
. Though epidemiologists have various methods for examining gene-environment interaction
, the relative number of studies focusing on applying and evaluating these tools are few.
His most recent papers are state-of-the-art studies drawn from 30-year longitudinal twin studies in Finland on gene-environment interaction
in the schizophrenia spectrum disorders.
Interestingly, in spite of researchers' shift toward a gene-environment interaction
model to explain more universal developmental outcomes, the study of talent and giftedness remains, for the most part, orthogonal to this trend, with some camps still advocating what are essentially environmental or genetic "main effects" positions.
Such gene-environment interaction
studies can give added support for the association between alcohol and breast cancer suggested by previous research, she noted.
KEY WORDS: children, development, gene-environment interaction
, PCBs, puberty, TCDD.
Alcohol research is an area where one might imagine gene-environment interaction
effects to be particularly important in etiological models because, by definition, exposure to alcohol is a necessary condition for the eventual development of alcohol-related problems.
There appears to be a genetic component to a lot of these but there is a gene-environment interaction