gene splicing


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Related to gene splicing: genetic engineering

gene

 [jēn]
one of the biologic units of heredity, self-reproducing, and located at a definite position (locus) on a particular chromosome. Genes make up segments of the complex deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) molecule that controls cellular reproduction and function. There are thousands of genes in the chromosomes of each cell nucleus; they play an important role in heredity because they control the individual physical, biochemical, and physiologic traits inherited by offspring from their parents. Through the genetic code of DNA they also control the day-to-day functions and reproduction of all cells in the body. For example, the genes control the synthesis of structural proteins and also the enzymes that regulate various chemical reactions that take place in a cell.

The gene is capable of replication. When a cell multiplies by mitosis each daughter cell carries a set of genes that is an exact replica of that of the parent cell. This characteristic of replication explains how genes can carry hereditary traits through successive generations without change.
allelic gene allele.
complementary g's two independent pairs of nonallelic genes, neither of which will produce its effect in the absence of the other.
DCC gene (deleted in colorectal carcinoma) a gene normally expressed in the mucosa of the colon but reduced or absent in a small proportion of patients with colorectal cancer.
dominant gene one that produces an effect (the phenotype) in the organism regardless of the state of the corresponding allele. An example of a trait determined by a dominant gene is brown eye color. See also heredity.
histocompatibility gene one that determines the specificity of tissue antigenicity (hla antigens) and thus the compatibility of donor and recipient in tissue transplantation and blood transfusion.
holandric g's genes located on the Y chromosome and appearing only in male offspring.
immune response (Ir) g's genes of the major histocompatibility complex that govern the immune response to individual immunogens.
immune suppressor (Is) g's genes that govern the formation of suppressor T lymphocytes.
immunoglobulin g's the genes coding for immunoglobulin heavy and light chains, which are organized in three loci coding for κ light chains, λ light chains, and heavy chains.
K-ras gene a type of oncogene.
lethal gene one whose presence brings about the death of the organism or permits survival only under certain conditions.
major gene a gene whose effect on the phenotype is always evident, regardless of how this effect is modified by other genes.
mutant gene one that has undergone a detectable mutation.
operator gene one serving as a starting point for reading the genetic code, and which, through interaction with a repressor, controls the activity of structural genes associated with it in the operon.
gene pool all of the genes possessed by all of the members of a population that will reproduce.
recessive gene one that produces an effect in the organism only when it is transmitted by both parents, i.e., only when the individual is homozygous. See also heredity.
regulator gene (repressor gene) one that synthesizes repressor, a substance which, through interaction with the operator gene, switches off the activity of the structural genes associated with it in the operon.
sex-linked gene a gene carried on a sex chromosome (X or Y); only X linkage has clinical significance. See X-linked gene.
structural gene one that forms templates for messenger RNA and is thereby responsible for the amino acid sequence of specific polypeptides.
tumor suppressor gene a gene whose function is to limit cell proliferation and loss of whose function leads to cell transformation and tumor growth; called also antioncogene.
X-linked gene a gene carried on the X chromosome; the corresponding trait, whether dominant or recessive, is always expressed in males, who have only one X chromosome. the term “X-linked” is sometimes used synonymously with “sex-linked,” since no genetic disorders have as yet been associated with genes on the Y chromosome.

splic·ing

(splīs'ing),
1. Attachment of one DNA molecule to another. Synonym(s): gene splicing
2. Removal of introns from mRNA precursors and the reattachment or annealing of exons. Synonym(s): RNA splicing
3. Posttranslational modification of a protein involving two proteolytic enzymes and one ligation; results in the removal of an internal sequence of amino acyl residues.

gene splicing

n.
The process in which fragments of DNA from one or more different organisms are combined to form recombinant DNA.

splic·ing

(splīs'ing)
1. Attachment of one DNA molecule to another.
Synonym(s): gene splicing.
2. Removal of introns from mRNA precursors and the reattachment or annealing of exons.
Synonym(s): RNA splicing.

gene splicing

The process in GENETIC ENGINEERING in which a short length of DNA from one organism is inserted into the DNA of another.
References in periodicals archive ?
The National Organic Standards Board recommended to the USDA that it adopt definitions of "natural" and "organic" that excluded the products of gene splicing. Monsanto and other biotech companies oppose that recommendation.
The committee advises the director of the NIH on issues related to gene splicing research and gene therapy.
Other gene splicing possibilities related to food include improved microorganisms to ferment a variety of ingredients from vitamins to gums.
He describes the two major applications as monoclonal antibodies and gene splicing. Monoclonal antibodies, he says, recognizes very specific portion of a protein and can be used to fight infections or as a diagnostic tool.
Unlike hybrids, which are developed in the field using natural, low-tech methods, GM varieties are created in a lab using highly complex technology, such as gene splicing. These high-tech GM varieties can include genes from several species--a phenomenon that almost never occurs in nature.
But that leaves the question of why the more precise methods of modern gene splicing should give them pause.
Gene splicing will help develop better-for-you fruits and vegetables through selective breeding assisted by gene markers.
Although GM supporters insist the technology raises harvest yields, reduces agrochemical use, and will eventually even produce high-nutrition food that can grow in depleted soils, skeptics counter that the risks of GM foods--made with gene splicing methods from biotechnology--are unknown and poorly addressed by current testing methods.
Paarlberg eloquently describes the political difficulties that confront the diffusion of recombinant DNA technology, or gene splicing, to agriculture in less developed countries.
As is the case with so many other public health false alarms, the attack on the new biotechnology -- also known as bioengineering, gene splicing, or genetic engineering -- is less about real concern for children's health than about environmental activists' willingness to exploit children's issues for their own benefit.
In due time, these rules of molecular recombination would have much the same impact on culture-making as gene splicing had for our understanding of biological nature.
Understanding the role of gene splicing also has helped researchers identify the mechanisms responsible for many genetic disorders.