gene pool


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gene

 [jēn]
one of the biologic units of heredity, self-reproducing, and located at a definite position (locus) on a particular chromosome. Genes make up segments of the complex deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) molecule that controls cellular reproduction and function. There are thousands of genes in the chromosomes of each cell nucleus; they play an important role in heredity because they control the individual physical, biochemical, and physiologic traits inherited by offspring from their parents. Through the genetic code of DNA they also control the day-to-day functions and reproduction of all cells in the body. For example, the genes control the synthesis of structural proteins and also the enzymes that regulate various chemical reactions that take place in a cell.

The gene is capable of replication. When a cell multiplies by mitosis each daughter cell carries a set of genes that is an exact replica of that of the parent cell. This characteristic of replication explains how genes can carry hereditary traits through successive generations without change.
allelic gene allele.
complementary g's two independent pairs of nonallelic genes, neither of which will produce its effect in the absence of the other.
DCC gene (deleted in colorectal carcinoma) a gene normally expressed in the mucosa of the colon but reduced or absent in a small proportion of patients with colorectal cancer.
dominant gene one that produces an effect (the phenotype) in the organism regardless of the state of the corresponding allele. An example of a trait determined by a dominant gene is brown eye color. See also heredity.
histocompatibility gene one that determines the specificity of tissue antigenicity (hla antigens) and thus the compatibility of donor and recipient in tissue transplantation and blood transfusion.
holandric g's genes located on the Y chromosome and appearing only in male offspring.
immune response (Ir) g's genes of the major histocompatibility complex that govern the immune response to individual immunogens.
immune suppressor (Is) g's genes that govern the formation of suppressor T lymphocytes.
immunoglobulin g's the genes coding for immunoglobulin heavy and light chains, which are organized in three loci coding for κ light chains, λ light chains, and heavy chains.
K-ras gene a type of oncogene.
lethal gene one whose presence brings about the death of the organism or permits survival only under certain conditions.
major gene a gene whose effect on the phenotype is always evident, regardless of how this effect is modified by other genes.
mutant gene one that has undergone a detectable mutation.
operator gene one serving as a starting point for reading the genetic code, and which, through interaction with a repressor, controls the activity of structural genes associated with it in the operon.
gene pool all of the genes possessed by all of the members of a population that will reproduce.
recessive gene one that produces an effect in the organism only when it is transmitted by both parents, i.e., only when the individual is homozygous. See also heredity.
regulator gene (repressor gene) one that synthesizes repressor, a substance which, through interaction with the operator gene, switches off the activity of the structural genes associated with it in the operon.
sex-linked gene a gene carried on a sex chromosome (X or Y); only X linkage has clinical significance. See X-linked gene.
structural gene one that forms templates for messenger RNA and is thereby responsible for the amino acid sequence of specific polypeptides.
tumor suppressor gene a gene whose function is to limit cell proliferation and loss of whose function leads to cell transformation and tumor growth; called also antioncogene.
X-linked gene a gene carried on the X chromosome; the corresponding trait, whether dominant or recessive, is always expressed in males, who have only one X chromosome. the term “X-linked” is sometimes used synonymously with “sex-linked,” since no genetic disorders have as yet been associated with genes on the Y chromosome.

gene pool

the set of the genes available for inheritance in a particular mating population.

gene pool

n.
The collective genetic information contained within a population of sexually reproducing organisms.

gene pool

the sum total of all the genes of all BREEDING INDIVIDUALS in a population at a particular time, represented by their GAMETES. Note that those individuals which are too young to breed (juveniles) or those that have undergone GENETIC DEATH do not contribute to the gene pool.
References in periodicals archive ?
"Within no more than two centuries, this genetic footprint introduced during the early Iron Age is no longer detectable and seems to be diluted by a local Levantine related gene pool," states Choongwon Jeong of the Max Planck Institute of the Science of Human History, one of the corresponding authors of the study.
These are worrying implications for the gene pool with the prospect of a loss of diversity that had served the thoroughbred so well for more than two centuries.
Accordingly, a possible predominance of snap bean growth habit in relation to the gene pool is suggested based on the results of the present study, wherein the determinate accessions may be more closely associated with the Andean gene pool, while the indeterminate ones may be more closely associated with the Mesoamerican gene pool.
The gene pool on the other hand is the total number of genes for any and all characteristics in any true population.
The rams will now be used for breeding in order to continue the quality gene pool ready for the auctions next year."
Mr Blair wrote: "At the very time when leadership is needed, the gene pool of political leaders has shrunk.
A high level of alcohol consumption threatens to national security, future of nation, gene pool, the expert said.
Rod Agas of the pool farm added that the bridge would be vital to the future plans for the Tamaraw Gene Pool Farm, including its future transformation into the Mindoro Biodiversity Park.
We think these Ice Age people were quite mobile and capable of maintaining a far-reaching gene pool that extended from central Siberia all the way west to central Europe.'
He had a bullet severe a big load off the gene pool during World War I; that explains a lot of the self-loathing, doesn't it?
Approximately half of the gene pool was universally shared everywhere in the world, while only the ASY region had the entire range of genetic diversity.
Nature wants to increase the gene pool. so you need to dress up, meet in a coffee bar (coffee makes sperm swim faster), pretend you are strangers and have sex doggy style, as it puts sperm nearer the egg.