However, none has shown reductions in the incidence of post procedure endophthalmitis.11 On the other hand, Apurva G et al concluded, in their review of literature, statistically significant (p = 0.029) decrease in the rate of endophthalmitis when moxifloxacin was used (0.01%) as compared to antibiotics (0.04%) like ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, gatifloxacin
, polymyxin and tobramycin.12 Recently, Kessel L et al in a meta-analysis, found no evidence that topical fluoroquinolone antibiotics can prevent endophthamitis.13 In this study; we have found that even if ofloxacin eye drops were given to patients, endophthalmitis was still diagnosed.
The isolates were also tested for resistance to ampicillin, cotrimoxazole, ciprofloxacin, ceftriaxone, doripenem, imipenem, ertapenem, aztreonam, moxifloxacin, cefpirome, cefepime, gatifloxacin
, and chloramphenicol by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method.
The following antibiotics like penicillin, cloxacillin, erythromycin, azithromycin, amikacin, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, gatifloxacin
, tetracycline, cephalexin, cefuroxime, cefoperazone, linezolid and combination drug like piperacillin + tazobactam were used and the diameter of zone of inhibition was measured with the help of special scale provided by Hi-Media, Mumbai, India.
Results: The rate of resistance to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole was up to 27 (18%) and the highest resistance to quinolone family belonged to ofloxacin (20%) and the lowest rate was for gatifloxacin
Wild strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis are predictably susceptible in vitro to FQN9,10, and various FQNs available in descending order of in vitro activity are Moxifloxacin, Gatifloxacin
, Levofloxacin, Ofloxacin and Ciprofloxacin .
Ocular penetration and pharmacokinetics of topical gatifloxacin
The weight of the evidence tends to show a higher rate of hypoglycaemia with gatifloxacin
than with levofloxacin or ciprofloxacin, the other fluoroquinolones most commonly associated with hypoglycaemia.
The fluoroquinolones studied were moxifloxacin (4 studies), levofloxacin (3 studies), gatifloxacin
(1 study), ciprofloxacin (2 studies), and sparfloxacin (1 study).
Overall, 36 per cent patients responded to gatifloxacin
, 42 per cent responded to piperacillin/tazobactam while 14 per cent responded to combination of gatifloxacin
There is also a molecule-dependent target specificity: mutations in parC are generally selected by pefloxacin, ciprofloxacin, and levofloxacin, and those in gyrA are selected by sparfloxacin, gatifloxacin
, moxifloxacin, gemifloxacin, and garenoxacin (5).
Ciprofloxacin at 17% resistance; ofloxacin at 26% resistance; levofloxacin at 18% resistance; and gatifloxacin
at 37% resistance are all higher than that demonstrated in Florida or the rest of the United States.
Believing that he had sinusitis, the patient had been self-medicating for 2 years with various antibiotics (e.g., gatifloxacin
, amoxicillin, cloxacillin, and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid) and nasal decongestants (e.g., oxymetazoline).