Prior cigarette smoking initiation predicting current alcohol use: evidence for a gateway drug
effect among California adolescents from eleven ethnic groups.
Students responded to six items designed to measure the number of close friends who used the five gateway drugs (two items pertained to cigarette use).
Studies should be conducted of stepparenting practices that serve to stabilize family relations and minimize adolescent experimentation with gateway drugs.
Internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha) was determined for the measures of composite gateway drug use and friends' gateway drug use (Cronbach, 1951).
Using a traditional group-difference approach, the relationship of family structure to adolescent gateway drug use, affiliation with drug-using peers, and perception of peer attitudes toward drug use was investigated.
Yet, several potential psychosocial and neuropharmacologic causal mechanisms promote tobacco's gateway drug function.
A number of other social/behavioral models explain the social dynamics of tobacco's gateway drug function.
Social Learning Theory also contributes to understanding the social dynamics of nicotine's gateway drug function.
Since the path to harder drugs begins with the gateway drugs (cigarettes, alcohol, and marijuana), it is important for educators to focus on both individual and environmental factors which can discourage gateway drug initiation.
Self-reported gateway drug involvement, with alpha reliabilities ranging from .
Friends' gateway drug involvement was assessed with a six-item scale comprised of questions requesting students to report the number of close friends' involvement with cigarettes, marijuana, beer, wine coolers, and liquor.
The report also implicated marijuana, as well as cigarettes and alcohol, as primary adolescent gateway drugs
- substances that serve as precursors for the abuse of more serious drugs.