Other groups included turbellarians, polychaetes, oligochaetes, gastrotrichs
, isopods, Kinorhyncha, and cnidarians.
Accepted morphological homologies supporting gastrotrich
monophyly include the presence of unique, cuticle-covered duo-gland adhesive organs (Tyler and Rieger, 1980), a multilayered epicuticle (Rieger and Rieger, 1977), and cuticle-covered locomotory and sensory cilia (Rieger and Rieger, 1977).
Nematodes, nauplii larvae, copepods, acari and gastrotrichs
were recorded at all stations.
The suitability of HMDS for drying biological specimens has been shown on insects (Nation 1983, Heraty & Hawks 1998), aquatic organisms (shrimp eggs, daphnids, gastrotrichs
) (Moraes & Bouzon 1995, Hochberg & Litvaitis 2000, Laforsh & Tollrian 2000), organic microstructures on bivalve shells (Schone & Bentley 2002), pollen (Chissoe et al.
Phylum 4 Gastrotricha (Gastrotrichs
) incertae sedis (Xenoturbellids, Buddenbrockids, and Lobatocerebrids)
The biology and ecology of lotic rotifers and gastrotrichs
The absence of a true midpiece evolved convergently in different metazoan phyla such as gastrotrichs
(Marotta et al., 2005) or chordates (Fukomoto, 1981).
A test of this idea might be to look for the expression of members of this gene family in the pharyngeal pores of macrodasyid gastrotrichs
(Ruppert and Barnes, 1994) to see if the gene is responsible for pores or openings in the pharynx in general, rather than having an expression that is specific to deuterostome gill pores.