gastrointestinal stromal tumour


Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Legal, Encyclopedia.

gastrointestinal stromal tumour

A mesenchmal tumour consisting of malignant spindled cells, which affects patients above age 50. GISTs are common in the stomach and thought to arise in the interstitial cells of Cajal in the muscularis propria.

Gastrointestinal stromal tumour
1–4%—Oesophagus (leiomyoma more common).
60%—Stomach.
4%—Duodenum.
30%—Jejunum/ileum.
<1%—Colon (leiomyoma/sarcoma more common).
<<1%—Appendix.
2–4%—Rectum/anorectum.

Extragastrointestinal GIST
• Omentum;
• Mesentery.

Pathogenesis GIST
85–90%—c-KIT (tyrosine kinase receptor; activation favours proliferation) mutations.
5%—GISTs PDGFRA (platelet derived growth factor receptor alpha, a c-KIT homologue) mutation.
5%—GISTs Wild type, neither mutation.
 
Clinical findings
Symptoms are nonspecific and include bleeding, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting and weight loss.

Adverse prognostic features
Epithelioid type, nuclear atypia, high mitotic count, necrosis, large size, non-gastric location, mucosal invasion, invasion of other organs, metastasis; possible other factors include Ki-67 labelling index, p53 overexpression, p16 loss, KIT mutation, PDGFRA mutation.
Segen's Medical Dictionary. © 2012 Farlex, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Trans-sacral (Kraske) approach for gastrointestinal stromal tumour of the lower rectum: Old procedure for a new disease.
CD117: a sensitive marker for gastrointestinal stromal tumours that is more specific than CD34.
Biopharmaceutical company CStone Pharmaceuticals (HKEX:2616) disclosed on Friday the receipt of approval from the National Medical Products Administration (NMPA) for the launch of its Phase I/II avapritinib clinical trial in China in patients with unresectable or metastatic gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GIST).
Gastrointestinal stromal tumour is the most common mesenchymal neoplasm of the alimentary tract.
Bulusu, "Global epidemiology of gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GIST): a systematic review of population-based cohort studies," Cancer Epidemiology, vol.
Differentials include gastrointestinal stromal tumours, leiomyoma and leiomyosarcoma as all of them are spindle cell lesions11.
Heinrich, "Gastrointestinal stromal tumours: origin and molecular oncology," Nature Reviews Cancer, vol.
Sunitinib in the management of gastrointestinal stromal tumours. Eur J Surg Oncol 2008;34(8):844-850.
Bronchogenic cyst of the gastric fundus presenting as a gastrointestinal stromal tumour. J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A.
Mr Jones (below), of Elter Close, Brownsover, Rugby, has a rare stomach cancer known as gastrointestinal stromal tumour.
Obla, "Gastroduodenal intussusception due to gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST)," Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, vol.
Whelan et al., "A guideline for the management of gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST)," Sarcoma, vol.

Full browser ?