gastrointestinal anthrax

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Related to gastrointestinal anthrax: Anthrax vaccine, inhalation anthrax


an infectious disease seen most often in cattle, horses, mules, sheep, and goats, due to ingestion of spores of Bacillus anthracis. It can be acquired by humans through contact with infected animals or their byproducts, such as carcasses or skins.

Anthrax in humans usually occurs as a malignant pustule or malignant edema of the skin. In rare instances it can affect the lungs if the spores of the bacillus are inhaled, or it can involve the intestinal tract when infected meat is eaten. The condition often is accompanied by hemorrhage, as the exotoxins from the bacillus attack the endothelium of small blood vessels. The condition is treated by the use of antibiotics such as penicillin and the tetracyclines. The malignant edema can be treated with intravenous hydrocortisone. The disorder is also known by a variety of names, including woolsorters' disease, ragpickers' disease, and charbon.
cutaneous anthrax anthrax due to lodgment of the causative organisms in wounds or abrasions of the skin, producing a black crusted pustule on a broad zone of edema.
gastrointestinal anthrax anthrax due to ingestion of poorly cooked meat contaminated with Bacillus anthracis, with deposition of spores in the submucosa of the intestinal tract, where they germinate, multiply, and produce toxin, resulting in massive edema, which may obstruct the bowel, hemorrhage, and necrosis.
inhalational anthrax a usually fatal form of anthrax due to inhalation of dust containing anthrax spores, which are transported to the regional lymph nodes where they germinate, multiply, and produce toxin, and characterized by hemorrhagic edematous mediastinitis, pleural effusions, dyspnea, cyanosis, stridor, and shock. It is usually an occupational disease, such as in persons who handle or sort contaminated wools and fleeces. Antimicrobial prophylaxis is used to prevent the condition. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has published interim guidelines for investigation and response to Bacillus anthracis infection. The evaluation of risk for exposure to aerosolized spores is of highest priority. Obtaining adequate samples, avoiding cross-contamination, and insuring proficient testing and evaluation of test results are all recommended.
meningeal anthrax a rare, usually fatal form of anthrax resembling typical hemorrhagic meningitis due to spread through the bloodstream of Bacillus anthracis from a primary focus of infection; manifestations include cerebrospinal fluid that is hemorrhagic and neurological signs and symptoms.
pulmonary anthrax inhalational anthrax.

gastrointestinal anthrax

See anthrax.
References in periodicals archive ?
Gastrointestinal anthrax cases and exposures have been reported only rarely in the United States, including a case with both cutaneous and gastrointestinal involvement related to industrial exposure (3), and exposure through ingestion of contaminated meat from an animal with anthrax (4).
Gastrointestinal anthrax is contracted by the ingestion of insufficiently cooked meat from infected animals.
The case-fatality rate for gastrointestinal anthrax is unknown but is estimated to be 25 to 60 percent.
Gastrointestinal anthrax after an animal-hide drumming event--New Hampshire and Massachusetts, 2009.
Gastrointestinal anthrax in humans occurs 1-7 days after eating raw or undercooked meat from infected animals [2], and two forms of gastrointestinal disease have been reported [3].
Underreporting is particularly likely for pulmonary and gastrointestinal anthrax, which have high case-fatality rates and pose diagnostic challenges (8,9), leading to a lack of appreciation of the true scale of the disease in anthrax-endemic regions.
Although some patients had eaten infected meat, no gastrointestinal anthrax cases occurred, which may be due to the cooking methods these patients used (overcooking the meat).
No attempt is made to estimate the number of cases of cutaneous and gastrointestinal anthrax, which are less apt to be fatal.
We describe a series of gastrointestinal anthrax cases, the reporting of which has become paramount with the current renewed interest in this entity, the scarcity of information in the research on this particular form of anthrax, and the high fatality rate in advanced disease.
4 not classified (a) Clinically compatible refers to physician or health professional report of any symptom thought to be related to inhalational, cutaneous, or gastrointestinal anthrax.
Of the 53 persons with anthrax in the 1998 Kazakhstan outbreak, 2 were diagnosed with gastrointestinal anthrax after eating contaminated raw meat.

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