an auxiliary flow; a shunt; a surgically created pathway circumventing the normal anatomical pathway, such as in an artery or the intestine.
Bypass. Single artery bypass of an occluded right coronary artery. From Dorland's, 2000.
aortofemoral bypass insertion of a vascular prosthesis from the aorta to the femoral artery to bypass atherosclerotic occlusions in the aorta and the iliac artery.
aortoiliac bypass insertion of a vascular prosthesis from the abdominal aorta to the femoral artery to bypass intervening atherosclerotic segments.
axillofemoral bypass insertion of a vascular prosthesis or section of saphenous vein from the axillary artery to the ipsilateral femoral artery to relieve lower limb ischemia in patients in whom normal anatomic placement of a graft is contraindicated, as by abdominal infection or aortic aneurysm.
axillopopliteal bypass insertion of a vascular prosthesis from the axillary artery to the popliteal artery to relieve lower limb ischemia in patients in whom the femoral artery is unsuitable for axillofemoral bypass.
diversion of the flow of blood from the entrance to the right atrium directly to the aorta, usually via a pump oxygenator
, avoiding both the heart and the lungs; a form of extracorporeal circulation
used in heart
(coronary artery bypass
) a section of saphenous vein or other conduit grafted between the aorta and a coronary artery distal to an obstructive lesion in the latter; called also aortocoronary bypass
extra-anatomic bypass an arterial bypass that does not follow the normal anatomic pathway, such as an axillofemoral bypass.
extracranial/intracranial bypass anastomosis of the superficial temporal artery to the middle cerebral artery to preserve function or prevent stroke or death in patients with stenosis of the internal carotid or middle cerebral artery.
femorofemoral bypass insertion of a vascular prosthesis between the femoral arteries to bypass an occluded or injured iliac artery.
femoropopliteal bypass insertion of a vascular prosthesis from the femoral to the popliteal artery to bypass occluded segments.
hepatorenal bypass insertion of a vascular prosthesis between the common hepatic artery and the renal artery, serving as a passage around an occluded segment of renal artery.
left heart bypass diversion of the flow of blood from the pulmonary veins directly to the aorta, avoiding the left atrium and the left ventricle.
partial bypass the deviation of only a portion of the blood flowing through an artery.
partial ileal bypass anastomosis of the proximal end of the transected ileum to the cecum, the bypass of the portion of the small intestine resulting in decreased intestinal absorption of and increased fecal excretion of cholesterol; sometimes used in treatment of hyperlipidemia.
right heart bypass diversion of the flow of blood from the entrance of the right atrium directly to the pulmonary arteries, avoiding the right atrium and right ventricles.
pertaining to, affecting, or originating in the stomach.
analysis of the stomach contents by microscopy and tests to determine the amount of hydrochloric acid
present. The tests performed are of value in diagnosing peptic ulcer
, cancer of the stomach, and pernicious anemia
. Gastric secretions are collected by continuous or intermittent aspiration via nasogastric tube. There is a wide overlap of the ranges of normal and abnormal values; hence intermediate values are not indicative of pathology. A total absence of acid (pH above 6.0) occurs in almost all cases of pernicious anemia and in some patients with advanced gastric carcinoma. Hypersecretion of hydrochloric acid is characteristic of zollinger-ellison syndrome
, which is marked by intractable, sometimes fulminating peptic ulcer, gastric hyperacidity, and gastrin-secreting pancreatic tumors.
gastric bypass surgical creation of a small gastric pouch that empties directly into the jejunum through a gastrojejunostomy, thereby causing food to bypass the duodenum; done for the treatment of gross obesity.
the secretion of glands in the walls of the stomach for use in digestion. Its essential ingredients are pepsin
, an enzyme that breaks down proteins in food, and hydrochloric acid
, which destroys bacteria and helps in the digestive process.
At the sight and smell of food, the stomach increases its output of gastric juice. When the food reaches the stomach, it is thoroughly mixed with the juice, the breakdown of the proteins is begun and the food then passes on to the duodenum for the next stage of digestion.
Normally the hydrochloric acid in gastric juice does not irritate or injure the delicate stomach tissues. However, in certain persons the stomach produces too much gastric juice, especially between meals when it is not needed, and the gastric secretions presumably erode the stomach lining, producing a peptic ulcer
, and also hinder its healing once an ulcer has formed.
a procedure of the treatment of morbid obesity consisting of the creation of a small pouch in the proximal stomach by two rows of staples, which are deliberately interrupted at one point to allow passage of food from the pouch to the rest of the stomach. This procedure is rarely done today because of its high failure rate. The two favored operations are the gastric bypass and the vertical banded gastroplasty
Miller-Keane Encyclopedia and Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing, and Allied Health, Seventh Edition. © 2003 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. All rights reserved.
Patient discussion about gastric bypass
Q. What types of gastric bypass surgeries are there? I heard all sorts of options for gastric bypass are available. What is the most in use?
A. Bariatric surgeries or – gastric bypass surgeries for weight loss fall into three categories: Restrictive procedures make the stomach smaller to limit the amount of food intake, malabsorptive techniques reduce the amount of intestine that comes in contact with food so that the body absorbs fewer calories, and combination operations employ both restriction and malabsorption. The exact one to be done should be decided with the physician according to each patients abilities and pre-operative function level.
Q. how about gastric bypass surgery how does it work on a person and what they half to eat how much weight does the person lose
A. surgery should always be the last answer because it is the biggest change you will do to your body and to your life. theres always a chance that something might go wrong. you have to be on a tight diet meaning one bite of what you eat and that means no sugars, fats, or oils. even if you thought there was no sugar, oil or fat in what ever you eat you will have so much pain in your stomach and you wont stop vomiting which will make it even more painful. the bright side to it is you will lose about 50 pounds in one month which is great but if you dont work out like crazy trying to tone up your muscles you will sag all over and then theres more money thrown out of your pocket doing tummy tucks and tucks for everything else. itall depends on the person. good luck in what ever you do. do your research first
Q. What are the risks in a gastric bypass surgery for weight loss? I am obese and I am interested in doing this surgery, but I’m scared. What are the risks of this surgery?
A. I had Gastric Bypass Surgery 5 years ago.. The surgery affects people differently.. I do believe the surgery has been perfected over the years and there isn't as great a risk of complications as there used to be. When I had my surgery the risk of death was 1 in 200. That was 5 years ago. I can say this much. It's changed my life!!. I'm MUCH healthier. The only side affect I have is I have to watch the amount of sweets I eat. My blood sugar drops and I faint. But, that's a good thing.. makes me not want to eat any sweets! A friend of mine can't eat protein. So she has to look for other sources. Like I said.. it affects everyone different. More discussions about gastric bypass
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