Pernicious anemia is an autoimmune disease that affects the gastric mucosa, resulting in gastric atrophy
, even if adequate dietary intake of B12 is present.
2004) Association between diversity in the Src homology 2 domain-containing tyrosine phosphatase binding site of Helicobacter pylori CagA protein and gastric atrophy
, metaplasia and dysplasia: a clinical perspective.
pylori infection is associated with gastric atrophy
which has led to the development of megaloblastic anemia.
7% of these patients ("slightly symptomatic" and asymptomatic) had gastric atrophy
or intestinal metaplasia, therefore they are at high risk to develop severe complications.
9-11 The presence of Helicobacter Pylori in the gastric patch may be important as, a predisposing factor for gastric atrophy
Antibodies to CagA protein are associated with gastric atrophy
in Helicobacter pylori infection.
Concurrent enteric helminth infection modulates inflammation and gastric immune responses and reduces helicobacter-induced gastric atrophy
The relation of Helicobacter pylori with intestinal metaplasia, gastric atrophy
pylori was found in 61% of patients without gastric atrophy
, while only 19% of patients with atrophy were positive for H.
The presence of more than three EPIYA sequences is a factor that significantly increases the risk of gastric atrophy
, intestinal metaplasia and gastric cancer (12,16).
pylori infection, lifestyle, gastric atrophy
and other risk factors.