Neuroblastoma is a malignant solid tumor, and ganglioneuroblastoma
has moderate malignant potential, which may require the need for close follow-up and for complimentary treatment, such as chemo- or radiotherapy.
Facial nerve ganglioneuroblastoma
in a feline leukemia virus-positive cat.
and ganglioneuroma are diseases that are linked to GALP.
These tumors exist on a spectrum, ranging from malignant neuroblastoma to ganglioneuroblastoma
and benign ganglioneuroma.
Newton et al., "Histopathologic prognostic factors in neuroblastic tumors: definition of subtypes of ganglioneuroblastoma
and an age-linked classification of neuroblastomas," Journal of the National Cancer Institute, vol.
Neoplasms such as schwannomas, neuroblastomas, ganglioneuroblastoma
, gangliomas, and spinal cord lesions often appear in the posterior mediastinum but are not cystic and can be ruled out preoperatively by imaging and lack of clinical manifestation.
It has been recently shown that ALK expression is associated with a less differentiated state of neuroblastic tumors, and the incidence of ALK overexpression in neuroblastoma is significantly higher than in more differentiated ganglioneuroblastoma
and ganglioneuroma [60, 61].
(GNB) represents a rare cause of adrenal tumor in adults.
, and ganglioneuroma are tumors of varying maturity with malignant or premalignant tendency with immature cells in neuroblastoma and ganglioneuroblastoma
and benign histopathology with ganglioneuroma [1, 2].
The differential diagnosis of a melanotic Schwannoma is made excluding malignant melanoma, pigmented meningioma and neurofibroma, rhabdomyosarcoma, clear-cell sarcoma of soft tissue, melanotic medulloblastoma, ganglioneuroblastoma
, ectomesenchymoma (triton tumor), neurotrophic melanoma, and melanotic neuroendocrine carcinomas and carcinoids .
En cuanto a los tumores embrionarios, corresponden al 20% de todos los tumores de SNC en poblacion pediatrica, su clasificacion incluye el meduloblastoma, el TNEP del SNC (Neuroblastoma del SNC, ganglioneuroblastoma
del SNC, meduloepitelioma, ependimoblastoma) y tumor teratoideo/rabdoide atipico (3).
Based on the balance between the neural type cells and Schwannian type cells and Schwannian stroma, these tumours are classified into four histologic subtypes: (1) Neuroblastoma (Schwannian stroma-poor), undifferentiated, poorly differentiated and differentiating; (2) Ganglioneuroblastoma
, intermixed (Schwannian stromarich); (3) Ganglioneuroma (Schwannian stroma dominant), maturing and mature; and (4) Ganglioneuroblastoma
, nodular (Composite Schwannian stroma rich/stroma dominant and stroma poor).