gamma-hydroxybutyrate


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γ-hy·drox·y·bu·tyr·ate (GHB, GHB),

(hī-drok'sē-byū'tir-āt),
A naturally occurring short-chain fatty acid, a metabolite of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) found in all body tissues, with the highest concentration in the brain. It affects levels of GABA, dopamine, 5-hydroxytryptamine, and acetylcholine, and may itself be a neurotransmitter; accumulation of GHB in people with an inherited disorder in the metabolism of GABA causes ataxia and mental retardation. Synthetic GHB, formerly used in anesthesia and in the treatment of narcolepsy and alcohol withdrawal, has been banned by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration because of severe neurologic, cardiovascular, respiratory, and gastrointestinal side effects.
Synonym(s): 4-hydroxybutyrate

Illicit use of GHB has become increasingly popular, particularly among body-builders, because it is easily and inexpensively manufactured in the home and is alleged to suppress appetite, relieve depression, enhance muscle mass by stimulating release of growth hormones, and improve sleep. It has also been used as a euphoriant and (because it is odorless and nearly tasteless and quickly induces sedation with retrograde amnesia) to facilitate date rape. Common street names for GHB include "grievous bodily harm," "liquid ecstasy," "liquid E," "liquid X," and "scoop." The drug is rapidly absorbed after oral administration and readily crosses the blood-brain barrier. It is primarily a central nervous system (CNS) depressant, but also lowers body temperature, heart rate, and cardiac output. Acute toxicity may be manifested by drowsiness, confusion, combative and self-injurious behavior, nausea, tremors, seizures, and coma. The drug acts synergistically with alcohol, benzodiazepines, and narcotics to produce profound CNS and respiratory depression. Most toxic episodes occur in males aged 18-25 and involve alcohol as well as GHB. Habituation is increasingly noted. Frequent dosing (every 1-3 hours around the clock) can induce dependency. Discontinuance after long-term use is associated with a severe withdrawal syndrome including tachycardia, hypertension, tremor, disorientation, hallucinations, and delirium. Treatment of both toxicity and withdrawal is purely supportive. Because the industrial and household solvent γ-butyrolactone (GBL) is metabolized to GHB, it has been marketed illicitly as a nutritional supplement alleged to have the same therapeutic effects as GHB. Its use has been associated with numerous reports of adverse events, including death.

gamma-hydroxybutyrate

(găm′ə-hī-drŏk′sē-byo͞o′tə-rāt′)
n. Abbr. GHB
A compound, C4H8O3, similar in structure and function to gamma-aminobutyric acid, usually used in the form of its sodium salt. It is prescribed to treat certain symptoms of narcolepsy and is used illegally for its euphoric and sedative effects.

gamma-hydroxybutyrate (gyaˈ·m-hī·drkˈ·sē·byōōˑ·t·rāt),

n uses: induce sleep; stimulate release of growth hormone; treat narcolepsy; weight control; and use for recreation as a euphoric and hallucinogen; precautions: seizure disorders, bradycardia, cardiovascular disease, Cushing's syndrome, severe hypertension, hyperprolactinemia. Not to be used with benzodiazepines, alcohol, opioids, skeletal muscle relaxants, barbiturates, anticonvulsants, antihistamines, protease inhibitors, major tranquilizers. Can produce hallucinogenic or euphoric states; can cause nausea, depression, vertigo, respiratory distress, lightheadedness, vomiting, abnormal muscle movements, confusion, drowsiness, lack of coordination, loss of bladder control, diarrhea, temporary amnesia, loss of consciousness, seizure-like activity, somnambulism and coma; can become addictive. Also called
cherry meth, liquid X, fantasy, organic quaalude, GBH, salty water, Georgia home boy, scoop, sleep-500, soap, liquid E, somatomaz, liquid ecstasy, and
vita-G.

γ-hy·drox·y·bu·tyr·ate

(GHB) (hī-drok'sē-byū'tir-āt)
Naturally occurring short-chain fatty acid, found in all body tissues, with the highest concentration in the brain. Synthetic GHB, formerly used in anesthesia and in the treatment of narcolepsy and alcohol withdrawal, has been banned by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration because of severe neurologic, cardiovascular, respiratory, and gastrointestinal side effects.
References in periodicals archive ?
Effect of gamma-hydroxybutyrate and its antagonist NCS-382 on prefrontal cortex firing in the rat.
Acute toxicity and withdrawal syndromes related to gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) and its analogues gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) and 1,4-butanediol (1.
Acute poisoning from gamma-hydroxybutyrate in California.
Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) exhibits anxiogenic-like effects in the << elevated plus maze test >> in male mice.
Club drugs: MDMA, gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB), Rohypnol, & Ketamine.
The past decade has seen a dramatic increase in the use of gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) and related substances.
Investigators found chloroform and GHB, or gamma-hydroxybutyrate, from his condos and houses, the sources said.
A hypnotic, anesthetic agent, gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) has drawn considerable media attention for its recent rise in illicit use.
GBL is converted by the body into gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB), a drug banned outside of clinical trials approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA).
The drug is popularly known as GHB, or Gamma-Hydroxybutyrate.
Pharmaceutical company Jazz Pharmaceuticals plc (NasdaqGS:JAZZ) said on Tuesday that it has received a new patent related to Xyrem (sodium oxybate) oral solution titled "Microbiologically Sound and Stable Solutions of Gamma-Hydroxybutyrate Salt for the Treatment of Narcolepsy".

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