A betaine of γ-aminobutyric acid; a precursor of carnitine by hydroxylation of the β-carbon.
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The latest research has uncovered a second, gamma-butyrobetaine, produced by the microbes at a rate 1,000 times higher than TMAO formation.
Effect of sports activity on carnitine metabolism: measurement of free carnitine, gamma-butyrobetaine and acylcarnitines by tandem mass spectrometry.
Such processes are characterized in that bioreactor microorganism or its mutant is cultivated with crotonobetaine and / or gamma-butyrobetaine in the presence of a growth substrate, after which the culture liquid is guided out-side the bioreactor in a cycle in which a significant biomass is removed to waste treatment.

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