gamma knife

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gamma Knife

a minimally invasive radiosurgical system used in the treatment of benign and malignant intracranial neoplasms and arteriovenous malformations.
See also: radiosurgery.

Gamma Knife is a registered trademark of Elekta Radiosurgery of Atlanta, Georgia. The system was developed in the late 1960s by Lars Leksell and Borge Larsson of Sweden. As a preliminary to use of the Gamma Knife, the lesion to be ablated is precisely located by imaging techniques such as MRI, CT, PET, and angiography. Beams of gamma rays from 200 cobalt-60 sources are then directed by a computer so that they converge on the lesion. A series of exposures are made during a period of about 1 hour. Lesions larger than about 3 cm cannot be treated. The mechanism is bulky and costly, but the procedure has shown a success rate of about 85% in the treatment of arteriovenous malformations and 50-95% percent for neoplasms. Besides avoiding the risks and complications of open surgery, the Gamma Knife permits treatment of lesions the location of which prohibits any attempt at surgical removal. In addition, patient discomfort is minimal and most patients remain in the hospital for only 1 night. Many return home, or even to work, on the day of treatment. The Gamma Knife has demonstrated limited usefulness in the treatment of other disorders, such as tumors of the eye and the pituitary gland, trigeminal neuralgia, epilepsy, parkinsonism, and other movement disorders.

Farlex Partner Medical Dictionary © Farlex 2012

Gamma Knife

A trademark for a radiologic nonsurgical device used in stereotactic radiosurgery.
The American Heritage® Medical Dictionary Copyright © 2007, 2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

gamma knife

Radiation oncology An RT device that provides 201 stereotactically focused beams of γ radiation from 60Co that destroys intracranial targets; the GK and linear accelerators can be adapted to irradiate localized regions of the brain Indications AV malformations, meningiomas, acoustic neuromas, pituitary adenomas, craniopharyngiomas, 1º and 2º tumors
McGraw-Hill Concise Dictionary of Modern Medicine. © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Gamma knife

A surgical tool that focuses beams of radiation at the head, which converge in the brain to form a lesion.
Mentioned in: Brain Tumor, Psychosurgery
Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine. Copyright 2008 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

Gam·ma Knife

(gamă nīf)
Minimally invasive radiosurgical system used to treat benign and malignant intracranial neoplasms and arteriovenous malformations. [Gamma Knife is a registered trademark of Elekta Radiosurgery of Atlanta, Georgia.]
Medical Dictionary for the Dental Professions © Farlex 2012
References in periodicals archive ?
Factors associated with hearing preservation after gamma knife surgery for vestibular schwannomas in patients who retain serviceable hearing.
Peng Li from China talking about Gamma Knife Radiosurgery for Cavernous hemangioma said that is a rare disease which represents 3% of all benign Cavernous stress tumors.
By indication type, the global Gamma Knife market is segmented into brain metastasis, cancer arteriovenous malformation (AVM), trigeminal neuralgia and others.
Settle says the Gamma Knife can be used to ablate malignant tumors that have moved into brain tissue from lung or breast cancer, for instance, as well as for treating tumors that have originated in the brain.
Results: The short-term curative rates of the surgical group and the Gamma Knife group were 93.51% and 54.87% respectively.
(50) reported a survival benefit, but could not exclude selection bias as the cause, on 64 patients treated with gamma knife radiosurgery.
After months on medication and little relief, Pierce finally went under the knife - the Gamma Knife - at the Oregon Neurosciences Institute at Sacred Heart Medical Center.
The standard therapy is surgical removal via a number of different approaches (translabyrinthine, suboccipital, or middle cranial fossa) or by stereotactic gamma knife surgery.