gamma globulin

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Related to gamma globulin: human gamma globulin


the third letter of the Greek alphabet, γ, used in names of chemical compounds to distinguish one of three or more isomers or to indicate the position of substituting atoms or groups.
gamma chain disease a type of heavy chain disease that resembles a malignant lymphoma, with symptoms of lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, and recurrent infections.
gamma globulin
1. a class of plasma proteins composed almost entirely of immunoglobulins, the proteins that function as antibodies. Production of gamma globulin may be increased in the body when there is invasion by harmful microorganisms. An abnormal amount in the blood, a condition known as hypergammaglobulinemia, may be indicative of a chronic infection or certain malignant blood diseases. There is also a rare condition, agammaglobulinemia, in which the body is unable to produce gamma globulin; patients suffering from this are extremely susceptible to infection and must be given frequent injections of gamma globulin serum.
gamma rays (γ-rays) electromagnetic emissions from radioactive substances; they are similar to and have the same general properties as x-rays but are produced through the disintegration of certain radioactive elements. They consist of high energy photons, have short wavelengths, and have no mass and no electric charge. Gamma rays are sometimes used in the treatment of deep-seated malignancies (see radiation therapy).


any of numerous proteins that are insoluble in water or highly concentrated salt solutions but soluble in moderately concentrated salt solutions. All plasma proteins except albumin and prealbumin are globulins. The plasma globulins are separated into five fractions by serum protein electrophoresis (SPE). In order of decreasing electrophoretic mobility these fractions are the alpha1-, alpha2-, beta1-, and beta2-globulins, and the gamma globulins.

The globulins include carrier proteins, which transport specific substances; acute phase reactants, which are involved in the inflammatory process; coagulation factors; complement components; and immunoglobulins. Examples are transferrin, a beta1-globulin that transports iron, and alpha1-antitrypsin, an acute phase reactant that inhibits serum proteases. The gamma globulin fraction is almost entirely composed of immunoglobulins.
accelerator globulin factor V, one of the coagulation factors.
antihemophilic globulin (AHG) factor VIII, one of the coagulation factors.
antilymphocyte globulin (ALG) the gamma globulin fraction of antilymphocyte serum; used as an immunosuppressant in organ transplantation. The term is sometimes used interchangeably with antithymocyte globulin.
antithymocyte globulin (ATG) the gamma globulin fraction of antiserum derived from animals (such as rabbits) that have been immunized against human thymocytes; an immunosuppressive agent that causes specific destruction of T lymphocytes, used in treatment of allograft rejection. The term is sometimes used interchangeably with antilymphocyte globulin.
bacterial polysaccharide immune globulin (BPIG) a human immune globulin derived from the blood plasma of adult human donors immunized with Haemophilus influenzae type b, pneumococcal, and meningococcal polysaccharide vaccines; used for passive immunization of infants under 18 months of age.
cytomegalovirus immune globulin a purified immunoglobulin derived from pooled adult human plasma selected for high titers of antibody against cytomegalovirus; administered intravenously for treatment and prophylaxis of cytomegalovirus disease in transplant recipients.
gamma globulin
hepatitis B immune globulin (HBIG) a specific immune globulin derived from plasma of human donors with high titers of antibodies against hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg); used for postexposure prophylaxis following contact with HBsAg-positive materials, also administered to infants of HBsAg-positive mothers.
hyperimmune globulin any of various immune globulin preparations especially high in antibodies against certain specific diseases.
immune globulin
2. a concentrated preparation containing mostly gamma globulins, predominantly IgG, from a large pool of human donors; used for passive immunization against measles, hepatitis A, and varicella and for treatment of hypogammaglobulinemia or agammaglobulinemia in immunodeficient patients, administered intramuscularly. See also immune g. intravenous (human).
immune globulin intravenous (human) a preparation of immune globulin suitable for intravenous administration; used in the treatment of primary immunodeficiency disorders and idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, and as an adjunct in the treatment of Kawasaki disease and the prevention of infections associated with chronic lymphocytic leukemia, bone marrow transplantation, and pediatric human immunodeficiency virus infection.
immune human serum globulin immune globulin (def. 2).
immune serum globulin immune g. (def. 2).
pertussis immune globulin a specific immune globulin derived from the blood plasma of human donors immunized with pertussis vaccine; used for the prophylaxis and treatment of pertussis.
rabies immune globulin a specific immune globulin derived from plasma of human donors hyperimmunized with rabies vaccine; administered in conjunction with rabies vaccine in cases of bite or scratch exposure to known or suspected rabid animals.
respiratory syncytial virus immune globulin intravenous a preparation of immunoglobulin G from pooled adult human plasma selected for high titers of antibodies against respiratory syncytial virus; used for passive immunization of infants and young children.
Rh0(D) immune globulin a specific immune globulin derived from human blood plasma containing antibody to the erythrocyte factor Rh0(D); used to prevent Rh-sensitization of Rh-negative females and thus prevent erythroblastosis fetalis in subsequent pregnancies; administered within 72 hours after exposure to Rh-positive blood resulting from delivery of an Rh-positive child, abortion or miscarriage of an Rh-positive fetus, or transfusion of Rh-positive blood. It is also used as a platelet count stimulator in the treatment of idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura.
serum g's all plasma proteins except albumin, which is not a globulin, and fibrinogen, which is not in the serum. The serum globulins are subdivided into alpha-, beta-, and gamma-globulins on the basis of their relative electrophoretic mobilities.
specific immune globulin a preparation of immune globulin derived from a donor pool preselected for high antibody titer against a specific antigen, such as hepatitis B immune globulin.
tetanus immune globulin a specific immune globulin derived from the blood plasma of human donors who have been immunized with tetanus toxoid; used in the prophylaxis and treatment of tetanus.
thyronine-binding globulin (TBG) (thyroxine-binding globulin) an acidic glycoprotein that is the main binding protein in the blood for thyroxine, and less firmly for triiodothyronine.
vaccinia immune globulin a specific immune globulin derived from the blood plasma of human donors who have been immunized with vaccinia virus smallpox vaccine; used as a passive immunizing agent.
varicella-zoster immune globulin (VZIG) a specific immune globulin derived from plasma of human donors with high titers of varicella-zoster antibodies; used for prevention or amelioration of varicella in immunocompromised patients exposed to the disease and in neonates whose mothers develop varicella in the perinatal period.
Miller-Keane Encyclopedia and Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing, and Allied Health, Seventh Edition. © 2003 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. All rights reserved.

gamma globulin



1. A protein fraction of blood serum containing many antibodies that protect against bacterial and viral infectious diseases.
2. A solution of gamma globulin prepared from human blood and administered for passive immunization against measles, German measles, hepatitis A, and other infections.
The American Heritage® Medical Dictionary Copyright © 2007, 2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

gamma globulin

A group of soluble proteins, present in the blood, most of which are IMMUNOGLUBULINS (antibodies), and which show the greatest mobility towards the cathode during ELECTROPHORESIS. Gamma globulin provides the body's main antibody defence against infection. For this reason it is produced commercially from human plasma and used for passive protection against many infections, especially HEPATITIS, MEASLES and POLIOMYELITIS.
Collins Dictionary of Medicine © Robert M. Youngson 2004, 2005

gamma globulin

a member of a group of proteins found in BLOOD PLASMA that may act as an ANTIBODY. see IMMUNOGLOBULIN.
Collins Dictionary of Biology, 3rd ed. © W. G. Hale, V. A. Saunders, J. P. Margham 2005

Gamma globulin

One of a group of proteins found in the blood that is involved in helping the body fight infections.
Mentioned in: Thrombocytopenia
Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine. Copyright 2008 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
The 3rd group of animals was infected with the same dose of the virus and was treated with trypsin-like proteinases inhibitor derived from the wastes of gamma globulin production.
Serum protein profile including total proteins, albumin, globulins, gamma globulins and non- gamma globulins of control, newly diagnosed patients, and those undergoing chemotherapy were determined.
In a series of questions sent to Mackenzie in March 1954, the PAC pointedly suggested that the majority of City nurses had taken their vacations during the height of the outbreak, and that they had tried to avoid working on the polio ward of the King George by volunteering to staff the clinic that administered the gamma globulin serum to contacts of confirmed polio cases.
Thus, hyperimmune gamma globulins against CCHFV were administered.
Laboratory findings included albumin/globulin inversion, gamma globulin of 24%, slightly prolonged prothrombin time (14 sec), and a prothrombin index of 43%.
[8.] Wise MS, Rutledge SL, Kuzniecki RI: Rasmussen's syndrome and long-term response to gamma globulin. Pediatr Neurol 1996; 14(2): 149-152.
A lumbar puncture is performed to reveal elevated gamma globulin in the spinal fluid.
* Immune globulin (IV) (Gamimune N, Gamma Globulin, IGIV), Bayer Pharmaceutical Division
Fessel and Forsyth (1963) demonstrated that electrical stimulation of the lateral hypothalamus in rats increased gamma globulin levels for up to 10 days following brain stimulation.
They could just as easily be safely immunized to produce an effective plasma or gamma globulin, which would not transmit such infectious disease as AIDS or hepatitis.
Other treatments include coffee enemas, something called "salt-neutralization therapy," gamma globulin, interferon, vitamins, ginseng, and the patient's urine (as a beverage or injection).
Because appropriate treatment significantly improves the outcome for children with this complication, all children with KS are treated with aspirin and intravenous gamma globulin. These two medications form the cornerstone of therapy.