Previously studies demonstrated that gallic acid
significantly increased intracellular [H.sub.2][O.sub.2] production, caused accumulation of ROS and resulted mitochondrial dysfunction, thus induced mice spermatogonia (GC-1), spermatocytes (GC-2), and TM3 Leydig cells apoptosis [12,30].
This pertains in particular to p-hydroxybenzoic and gallic acids
, as well as ferulic, sinapic and p-coumaric acids, which are predominant in asparagus.
Ameliorative Effect of Gallic Acid
on Cyclophosphamide-Induced Oxidative Injury and Hepatic Dysfunction in Rats.
For most of the components, these RSD values for intra-day studies were lower than 1%, which shows that the method was very precise in intra-day studies, with the exception of gallic acid
. When RSD values for inter-day studies were investigated, it was seen that RSD values for gallic acid
, chlorogenic acid, and epigallocatechin were out of the limits.
HPLC fingerprinting of extracts revealed the presence ofthe gallic acid
([t.sub.R] =11.67 min; peak 1), chlorogenic acid ([t.sub.R] = 21.45 min; peak 2), caffeic acid ([t.sub.R] = 24.08 min; peak 3), coumarin ([t.sub.R] = 30.21; peak 4), rutin ([t.sub.R] = 38.19 min; peak 5), quercitrin ([t.sub.R] = 46.57 min; peak 6), quercetin ([t.sub.R] = 49.97 min; peak 7) and kaempferol ([t.sub.R] = 52.11 min; peak 8) (Fig.
The location of the peak at the highest temperature could be attributed to the gallic acid
free in the matrix whose melting is produced at 250[degrees]C [15, 16].
The stock standard solutions of gallic acid
, bergenin, quercitrin, and embelin (1.0 mg [mL.sup.-1]) were made by dissolving appropriate amounts of these compounds in methanol.
The identification was carried out at 280 nm for phenolic acids and at 365 nm for flavonoids using gallic acid
, epicatechin, coumaric acid, apigenin, and naringenin as standard phenolic acids and rutin, quercetin, and kaempferol as standard flavonoids and based on comparison with retention times and coinjection.
(a) epicatechin; (b) catechin; (c) dihydroquercetin; (d) naringenin; (e) apigenin; (f) gallic acid
; (g) p-hydroxybenzoic acid; (h) protocatechuic acid; and (i) vanillic acid.
TPC was expressed as mg of gallic acid
equivalents (GAE) per g of DE.
All the other chemicals required for antioxidant studies were purchased from HiMedia, Merck, and gallic acid
was procured from Sigma.
The gallic acid
solution was made in various concentrations, i.e.