The chimera galectin-3 has a C-terminal CRD and an N-terminal tail, whilst the tandem repeat galectins (galectin-4, -8, -9, and -12) have two CRDs.
Galectin-4. Galectin-4 is a tandem-repeat galectin with two CRDs joined by a linker.
Taken together, this suggests that galectin-4 could be important not only for ulcerative colitis but also for other inflammatory bowel diseases such as Crohn's disease.
Sturm, "Galectin-4 controls intestinal inflammation by selective regulation of peripheral and mucosal t cell apoptosis and cell cycle," PLoS One, vol.
Sugimoto et al., "Induced reactivity of intestinal CD4+ T cells with an epithelial cell lectin, galectin-4, contributes to exacerbation of intestinal inflammation," Immunity, vol.
Rao, "Galectin-4 functions as a tumor suppressor of human colorectal cancer," International Journal of Cancer, vol.
Jeon et al., "Abrogation of galectin-4 expression promotes tumorigenesis in colorectal cancer," Cellular Oncology, vol.
Based on their domain structures, galectins are classified into three subgroups: proto-type galectins (galectin-1, -2, -5, -7, -10, -11, -13 and -14), chimera-type galectin (galectin-3) and tandem-repeat type galectins (galectin-4, -6, -8, -9 and -12) (Melissa et al., 2005).
Galectin-4 was found as an isoform in the porcine small intestine (Melissa et al., 2005).
Identification of galectin-4 isoforms in porcine small intestine.