The presence of the epitope galactose-alpha-1,3-galactose
([alpha]Gal) synthesized by alpha-1,3-galactosyltransferase ([alpha]GT) on the surface of porcine cells induces HAR [4,5].
The findings were published by the scientific journal Nature Biotechnology as a correspondence entitled Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells Can Produce Galactose-alpha-1,3-Galactose
Antigens on Proteins.
The unique part on this monoclonal antibody drug responsible for these cross-reactions was determined to be the carbohydrate structure galactose-alpha-1,3-galactose
; found on both the monoclonal antibody protein and beef proteins.