Heimark et al., "Isolation, structure, synthesis, and bioactivity ofa novel putative insulin mediator: a galactosamine
chiro-inositol pseudo-disaccharide Mn2+ chelate with insulin-like activity," Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, vol.
Animals were assessed neurologically after injection of galactosamine
for seven days and during the progression of acute liver injury.
Hepatoprotective activity of andrographolide against galactosamine
& paracetamol intoxication in rats.
"Hepatoprotective activity of andrographolide against galactosamine
and paracetamol intoxication in rats." Indian J Med Res, 1990;92:284-292.
In this study, mice were administered galactosamine
and endotoxin (Gal/ET), chemical agents that are used to induce endotoxemia resulting in liver failure due to cell death.
In the case ofglucosamine and galactosamine
hydrochlorides, which already contain amino functionality, to ensure chemoselectivity in coupling with tartaric acid, a relative long route was adopted involving protecting the entire hydroxyl and amino functionalities on these sugars.
Currently, Ionis has multiple drugs in their pipeline that contain Ionis' most advanced liver-targeting conjugate, an N-acetyl galactosamine
, or GalNAc molecule that interact specifically with receptors present on the surface of important liver cells, which increases uptake of the antisense drug in these cells.
Yamaguchi et al., "Enhancement by galactosamine
of lipopolysaccharide(LPS)-induced tumour necrosis factor production and lethality: its suppression by LPS pretreatment," British Journal of Pharmacology, vol.
Assay method for anti-hepatoprotective using galactosamine
induced cytotoxicityin primary cultured hepatocytes.
treatment of rats usually leads to hepatitis associated with necrosis and inflammation.
Hence, the amounts of hexosamines and muramic acid and their ratios (glucosamine to galactosamine
and glucosamine to muramic acid) can serve as useful indicators for bacterial and fungal contribution to SOM (Zhang et al.
Studies on the mechanism of galactosamine
hepatitis: accumulation of galactosamine-1-phosphate and its inhibition of UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase.