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Here, we discuss the relevance of Gal-1 in cardiovascular disorders including acute myocardial infarction (AMI), heart failure (HF), Chagas cardiomyopathy, pulmonary hypertension (PAH), and ischemic stroke and highlight cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying these effects.
Gal-1 is expressed in the normal heart of many species [22-24].
Cultured cardiomyocytes upregulate and secrete Gal-1 early after hypoxia and in response to proinflammatory cytokines [19], as seen in the early phase of AMI in vivo (Figure 1(a)).
Galectin-1 (Gal-1), with a single carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD), was recently identified as a mediator in the process of tumor angiogenesis [10-12].
In this study, we found that Gal-1 was overexpressed in OIR model.
The sections were mounted on polylysine slides and immunostained with the Gal-1 antibody (5 [micro]g/ml, R&D System, MN, USA) overnight at 4[degrees]C.
Galectin-1 (Gal-1) is the first member discovered in Galectin family, and its expression is induced by a variety of physiological and pathological factors.
Whether Gal-1 and MAPK are involved in the immunosuppressive processes of MSCs on DCs is still inconclusive.
As can also be localized in the nucleus membrane, cytoplasm and cell surface, Gal-1 protein has been reported to be involved in cell-cell, cell-substrate and cell-extracellular matrix interactions and in adhesion, apoptosis, cell cycle regulation, cell growth and migration and in neoplastic transformation, inflammation and tumor metastasis (Seyrek et al., 2001).
Semi-quantitative scoring method was employed to evaluate Gal-1 and Gal-3 immunolocalization in many parts of diabetic rat ovary, such as epithelium, tunica albuginea, cortex, cortical blood vessels, medulla, fibroblast-like cells, primordial follicles, primordial follicle cells, primary oocytes, primary follicle, primary follicle cells, zona pellucida, theca interna, theca externa, secondary follicles, granulosa cells, antrum, corona radiata and culumus (Tables I and II).
Pioneer studies by Lotan's group found that Gal-1 and Gal-3 are expressed in the cytoplasm of the majority of prostate cancer cell lines, except LNCaP which is the most studied human androgen-sensitive cell line.
Gal-1 was expressed in most cases, irrespective of the histology stages.