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Filicene obtained from Adiantum cuneatum interacts with the cholinergic, dopaminergic, glutamatergic, GABAnergic and tachykinergic systems to exert antinociceptive effect in mice.
Clonazepam, a benzodiazepine, is a GABAnergic agonist, which activates pain-inhibitory pathways in the spinal cord and in peripheral nociceptors.
Reduced GABAnergic tone after a peripheral nerve or a spinal cord injury disinhibits excitatory impulses and lowers nociceptive thresholds [20-22].
Increases in Markers of Glutamatergic Neurotransmission and Decreases in Glycinergic and GABAnergic Signaling Are Observed after Contusive SCI.
GABAnergic signaling was assessed using immunoblot detection of the GABA-synthesizing enzymes [GAD.sub.65/67] (Figure 5).
Temporal and spatial behavioral and molecular data from the present study supports the hypothesis that reductions in inhibitory GABAnergic and glycinergic signaling, via [GAD.sub.65/67] and GLRA3, and increased excitatory glutamatergic signaling, via GluR3, are involved in neuronal hyperexcitability and the ensuing manifestation of neuropathic pain following SCI.
GABAnergic and glycinergic fibers descend from supraspinal sites and innervate the dorsal horn directly.
Glycinergic neurons are localized throughout the spinal grey matter, overlapping with GABAnergic neurons, although they are more localized to deeper layers of the dorsal horn (laminae III-IV) [46].
For example, prenatal exposure to inflammation or infection (risk of schizophrenia is increased where the mother had an infection during pregnancy) may cause abnormal development of NMDA receptors, which leads to diminished function in GABAnergic pathways that, in turn, causes dysregulation of dopamine circuits in the brain.
Brain creatine functions to attenuate acute stress responses through GABAnergic system in chicks.
Evidence from the gene catalog confirms that sea urchins have, among others, serotonergic, GABAnergic, and dopaminergic neurons.