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A necessary precursor in the biosynthesis of glutathione; contains an isopeptide rather than a eupeptide bond.
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subtilis B10 treatment induced high gene expression levels of glutathione S-transferases (GST) and g-glutamylcysteine synthetase (g-GCS) in RAW 264.7 cells.
While, g-glutamylcysteine synthetase (g-GCS) is a rate-limiting enzyme in de novo synthesis of GSH and it plays a pivotal role in GSH homeostasis (Hibi et al., 2004).
2003), and its levels reflect the degree of oxidative challenge placed upon the tissue, g-glutamylcysteine synthase is responsible for catalyzing the synthesis of g-glutamylcysteine from glutamic acid and cysteine, and glutathione synthetase then catalyzes the synthesis of GSH from g-glutamylcysteine and glycine; the second reaction is ATP-dependent (Huang et al.