furuncular otitis

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inflammation of the ear. adj., adj otit´ic.
aviation otitis a symptom complex due to difference between atmospheric pressure of the environment and air pressure in the middle ear; called also barotitis media.
otitis exter´na inflammation of the external ear, usually caused by a bacteria or fungus. See also otomycosis.
otitis externa, circumscribed acute bacterial otitis externa in a limited area, with formation of a furuncle that may obstruct the canal; usually due to a staphylococcal infection. Called also furuncular otitis externa.
otitis externa, diffuse otitis externa involving a relatively wide area, without formation of a furuncle.
otitis externa, furuncular circumscribed otitis externa.
otitis externa, malignant a progressive, necrotizing infection of the external auditory canal caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and affecting chiefly elderly diabetic and immunocompromised patients. It begins with the formation of granulation tissue in the external auditory canal, followed by localized chondritis and osteomyelitis, extension to the tissues surrounding the ear with destruction of involved bone, and involvement of the cranial nerves at the base of the skull; mortality in patients with nerve involvement is high.
furuncular otitis circumscribed otitis externa.
otitis inter´na labyrinthitis.
otitis me´dia inflammation of the middle ear, usually seen in infants and young children, and classified as either serous (or secretory) or suppurative (or purulent). Both types characteristically result in accumulations of fluid behind the tympanic membrane with some degree of hearing loss.
Serous Otitis Media. In this condition the eustachian tube fails to maintain equality of the barometric pressure within and outside the middle ear. When the tube fails to open and close as it should, air within the middle ear is under negative pressure. This causes inward retraction of the eardrum and movement of serous fluid from the mucosal capillaries into the middle ear space. The serous fluid can fill up the space and cause conductive hearing loss.

Acute serous otitis media usually follows an upper respiratory infection or trauma to the ear or may be associated with an allergy or enlarged adenoids. Symptoms are mild and may consist only of a feeling of fullness in the ear and some evidence of hearing loss. Otitis media with effusion is fluid in the middle ear with no signs or symptoms of infection.
Suppurative Otitis Media. The introduction of pus-producing bacteria into the middle ear causes this condition. It usually is associated with an upper respiratory infection, particularly when organisms from the nasopharynx find their way into the middle ear via the eustachian tube.

Symptoms include irritability, difficulty in sleeping, some pain, and loss of hearing. If sufficient pressure builds up behind the tympanic membrane it may rupture spontaneously and exude a purulent discharge. If the pus-laden fluid breaks through internally it can result in intracranial abscess, meningitis, and mastoiditis. Acute suppurative otitis media is treated aggressively with antibacterials and tympanocentesis to relieve pressure and obtain fluid for culturing. If the condition becomes chronic there is continuous otorrhea and hearing loss. Treatment includes systemic antibacterials, topical therapy with ear drops, tympanoplasty to repair a ruptured ear drum and damaged ossicles, and, sometimes, mastoidectomy to eliminate all sources of infection.
Otitis Media with Effusion. is fluid in the middle ear with no signs or symptoms of infection. management. The American Academy of Pediatrics has developed clinical guidelines called Managing Otitis Media With Effusion in Young Children. They recommend the use of pneumatic otoscopy to assess middle ear status and tympanometry. Children who have had fluid in both middle ears for a total of three months should undergo hearing evaluation. Observation or antibiotic therapy are treatment options if the effusion has been present for less than four to six months. Most cases of otitis media with effusion resolve spontaneously.

Three sets of guidelines are available: the aforementioned (AHCPR Publication 94-0623); Otitis Media with Effusion in Young Children (AHPCR Publication 94-0622); and Middle Ear Fluid in Children: Parent Guide (AHCPR Publication 94-0624). Copies can be obtained by writing the AHCPR Publications Clearinghouse, P.O. Box 8547, Silver Spring, MD 20907, calling 1-800-358-9295, or consulting their web site at http://www.ahcpr.gov.
Miller-Keane Encyclopedia and Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing, and Allied Health, Seventh Edition. © 2003 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. All rights reserved.

furuncular otitis

A furuncle formation in the external meatus of the ear.
See also: otitis
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