functional neurosurgery


Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Encyclopedia.

func·tion·al neu·ro·sur·ger·y

destruction or chronic excitation of a part of the brain to treat disordered behavior or function.

psychosurgery

A general term for neurosurgery intended to alleviate psychiatric symptoms. The tools used in modern psychosurgery result in selective tract destruction and include radioactive 90Yt implants in the substantia innominata, cryoprobes, coagulation, proton beams and ultrasonic waves. Psychosurgery is not commonly performed, as it must be first established that a patient is unresponsive to all other therapies and that the condition is chronic (i.e., > 3 years duration).

Significant improvement is reported in 60% of carefully selected patients; in 3%, the symptoms worsen after the procedure. The measurable intelligence quotient may actually increase, due to an improved ability to concentrate and memorise, while distractibility is reduced to a minimum.

Psychosurgery was first performed in 1890 by G Burckhardt. Early psychosurgical procedures included topectomy (removal of pieces of cerebral cortex, weighing 20 g for pain to 50 g for fulminant schizophrenia). Other early procedures included lobectomy and leukotomy (popularised by W Freeman, which consisted of thrusting an icepick-like device through the eye socket and manipulating the handle to rupture myelinated tracts). The Freeman procedure’s popularity peaked in the late 1940s, its decline coinciding with the availability of the first effective psychoactive drugs.
 
Complications
Seen in 1 %, complications include infections, haemorrhage, and seizures.

func·tion·al neu·ro·sur·ger·y

(fŭngk'shŭn-ăl nūr'ō-sŭr'jĕr-ē)
Destruction or chronic excitation of a part of the brain to treat disordered behavior or function.

functional neurosurgery

The treatment of diseases of the nervous system in which structurally normal-appearing nerves behave abnormally.. Examples of diseases treated with functional neurosurgery include Parkinson disease and other movement disorders, seizure disorders, and some types of chronic nerve pain.
See also: neurosurgery
References in periodicals archive ?
Starr, "Hemorrhagic complications of microelectrode-guided deep brain stimulation," Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery, vol.
Coste et al., "Subthalamic nucleus location: relationships between stereotactic AC-PC-based diagrams and MRI anatomy-based contours," Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery, vol.
Pilitsis specializes in functional neurosurgery, including deep brain stimulation for Parkinson's disease, essential tremor and dystonia, spinal cord stimulation and motor cortex stimulation for pain syndromes, and vagal nerve stimulation for epilepsy.
Friehs, M.D., Ph.D., director of functional neurosurgery mid associate professor of clinical neurosciences at Brown Medical School.
The Swedish radiation oncology and neurosurgery solutions and services provider Elekta AB said on Thursday (11 December) that it had participated in the reconstruction of Iraq by delivering a complete system for minimal-invasive stereotactic and functional neurosurgery.
The main goal of functional neurosurgery for movement disorders is to suppress symptoms of a disease by modifying the pathophysiological process behind the symptoms or restoring normal physiology, at least in part.
"But this makes a difference only with highly specific operations--for example, in functional neurosurgery, where we're ablating specific nuclei of the brain to correct a movement disorder.
Ostrem, "Weight change after globus pallidus internus or subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation in Parkinson's disease and dystonia," Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery, vol.
Professor of functional neurosurgery at the (BRAIN) Unit, William Gray, was awarded a Life Sciences Bridging Fund to conduct the new procedure.
William Gray, professor of functional neurosurgery at the Brain Unit, was awarded a Life Sciences Bridging Fund to conduct the new procedure.
Wang Wei from China shared his experience about stereotactic and functional neurosurgery at West China Hospital.

Full browser ?