One aim of neurotherapeutic interventions is improving volitional walking ability via modalities such as strength and endurance exercise, balance training, overground gait training (OGT), body-weight-supported treadmill training (BWSTT), and functional electrical stimulation
(FES) assisted gait training.
Further development of hybrid functional electrical stimulation
Abbreviations: 3-D = three-dimensional, CWRU/VA = Case Western Reserve University/Department of Veterans Affairs, DOF = degree of freedom, FES = functional electrical stimulation
, SCI = spinal cord injury, SQP = sequential quadratric programming.
Abbreviations: BDNF = brain-derived neurotrophic factor, CNS = central nervous system, ESCS = epidural spinal cord stimulation, FES = functional electrical stimulation
, FNS = functional neuromuscular stimulation, SCI = spinal cord injury, TrkB = tyrosine kinase B.
Effectiveness of upper limb functional electrical stimulation
after stroke for the improvement of activities of daily living and motor function: A systematic review and meta-analysis.
The use of functional electrical stimulation
on the upper limb and interscapular muscles of patients with stroke for the improvement of reaching movements: A feasibility study.
Huang, "Effect of normal-walking-pattern-based functional electrical stimulation
on gait of the lower extremity in subjects with ischemic stroke: a self controlled study," NeuroRehabilitation, vol.
The presented technique is based on an array of recording and stimulation electrodes on the forearm, used to acquire sEMG signals from five hand motion patterns from six able-bodied subjects, and the effects of this technique over functional electrical stimulation
(FES) and volitional sEMG combinations.
(4) used functional electrical stimulation
(FES) cycling to enhance arterial health in nine individuals with SCI increasing femoral artery diameter and blood flow in paralyzed legs after six weeks of thrice weekly FES cycling (30 minutes at 50 revolutions per minute).
Shoulder pain in hemiplegia revisited: contribution of functional electrical stimulation
and other therapies.
Researchers from Case Western Reserve University (Cleveland), the Cleveland Functional Electrical Stimulation
Center at the Louis Stokes Cleveland Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center and University Hospitals (UH) Cleveland Medical Center worked with Kochevar, who was paralyzed below his shoulders in a bicycling accident, to restore movement in Kochevar's right arm and hand.
Functional Electrical Stimulation
. The effects of functional electrical stimulation
(FES) on upper limb recovery in individuals with stroke have been extensively investigated during the last 30 years.